Psycholinguistics Psycholinguistics Journal publishes refereed articles dealing with psychological, anthropological, linguistic, social communication and psychodidactic aspects of psycholinguistics en-US (Nataliia Kharchenko) (Usenko Pavel) Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Dynamics of the Semantic Content of the Word Freedom <p>This article analyzes the meaning of the word freedom and the dynamics of its semantic content in the individual image of the world of young people of Russian culture. The study was performed in line with the psycholinguistic research. Significant attention is paid to basic characteristics of the concept: its abstractness, axiological essence and symbolism. It is underlined the significance of the phenomenon of freedom for Russian culture, because it serves as one of the most important key words with high emotional intensity and broad associative field.</p> <p>Dynamics and changes in the content of the word freedom are handled though data analysis of explanatory, encyclopedic and associative dictionaries, the data corpus of the Russian language, chat rooms, blogs, Internet, uses of the word freedom in the media. It is complemented by the analysis of the results obtained during experimental studies. This approach of research is due to the psycholinguistic understanding of the associative field being viewed as a fragment of an image of the world of a particular ethnic group reflected in the consciousness of the "average" media, culture, motivation, evaluation and cultural stereotypes. These characteristics of associative fields give not only the opportunity to deeply investigate any phenomenon but to consider its conceptual, figurative and value components. The mail aim is also to identify the factors that determine faults or failures in interpersonal communication.</p> <p>The analysis allowed proving that the meaning of the word freedom appears and creates new components that is steadily replacing the old, which causes substantial changes in the individual image of the world. The main conclusion the authors made based on the results obtained is the following: the accumulation of changes in the way the world of a certain generation in the future will lead to fundamental changes in the ethnic image of the world and in the Russian culture. Thus, the work outlines possible ways of studying the dynamics of meaning, the results of which will be relevant to predict future vectors of development of modern society and national cultures.</p> Irina Bubnova, Oksana Kazachenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Prosodic Characteristics of Semi-Spontaneous Speech <p>The present article analyses the idea of semi-spontaneous speech, comparing it to spontaneous and prepared types of speech; studies and describes the prosodic characteristics of semi-spontaneous speech, implemented in the genre of interview; studies the role of speaker’s level of preparedness to the communication act in respect of prosodic speech behaviour and differentiates proportion of the preparedness in spontaneous, prepared and semi-spontaneous speech; distinguishes a specific genre of mass media discourse &nbsp;– “star interview”, its structure and differential features, designating the role and functions of the interviewer in “speaker – interviewer – target mass audience” link. The studied material involves audio recordings of interviews with three popular British musicians: Phil Collins, Sting and George Michael. Separate monological statements taken from interviews were analyzed with a particular focus on prosodic characteristic, taking into consideration the matters under discussion, the speaker’s wish to elaborate upon a theme or shunt the conversation on another topic. Auditorial and acoustic analyses covered the research of such prosodic parameters as: the nature of the intonational scale, terminal tone and pausation peculiarities in the speakers’ speech. The central focus of the present research is on differentiation elements that characterize semi-spontaneous speech. The article describes essential aspects that have influence over the main prosodic characteristics of oral speech: experience in public speaking, individual characteristics of the speaker, physical and mental state, awareness of the topic discussed, desire to cover particular issues.</p> Olena Bialyk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Old Age as a Conceptual Phenomenon: Regional and Age Aspects of Associtive Semantics* <p>The article analyzes the conceptualization of old age by non-adult speakers of the modern Russian language. The relevance of the study is determined by the active interest of modern linguistics to the content of consciousness and the ways of its description, the need for a psycholinguistic interpretation of the age period of old age as a conceptual phenomenon, an interest in the consciousness of non-adult native speakers of the Russian language. The author compares the results of his own psycholinguistic experiments, the databases of the Siberian Association Dictionary and the “Russian Associative Dictionary. Associative reactions of schoolchildren of the I-XI classes ", simulates the semantic composition, emotive-sensual meaning of the word "old age" as a component of the mental lexicon of schoolchildren in Omsk, Omsk region, draws conclusions about the age and regional features of semantics, the cognitive structure of the associative field on the basis of the concept words as an asset of the individual. Experiments have shown that the processes of conceptualization of the phenomenon of old age in the consciousness of recipients actively involve the emotional-sensory sphere, which leads to the formation of an ambivalent emotional-appraising sector, in which there are negative and positive components.</p> <p>The course of free association and the process of semantic reception revealed their presence. The age specificity of the composition of the associative field was manifested in a small number of nuclear reactions, quantitative and qualitative filling of the cognitive layers of the associative stimulus field.</p> <p>The cognitive composition of the associative field includes six cognitive layers, among which the layers of subjects, characteristics and consequences of old age predominate, which is also related to the age of recipients: non-adult Russian speakers associate the phenomenon of old age primarily with middle-aged people. Receptive experiment revealed the predominance of negative emotional-evaluative attitude towards the stimulus. The participants of the experiment perceived it as something bad and weak, but bright, it was on these scales that the indicators were maximum. Informants of the same age group from another region chose the word "old age" as a reaction most often for incentives related to the anthropomorphic incarnation of the elderly, the names of the period of human life and age.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Larysa Butakova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Model of Situation as Basis for Comparison of Lexical Semantics <p>The paper focuses on the model of situation concept – a representation that constitutes the basis for comparison (tertium comparationis) in contrasting the semantics of lexical items in related and non-related languages. The expediency of using the model of situation concept as the basis for comparison agrees with an assumption of universality and uniqueness of situation conceptualization. From this viewpoint, the content of a linguistic item’s semantics is viewed within the dialectics of relations between the universality of human cognition and the uniqueness of conceptualization. The model of situation concept is analyzed as a propositional function in which the arguments represent the conceptualization of a perception object, whilst the predicate – a cognitive conception of the conceptualization itself. From this perspective, the model of situation concept represents the content of a lexical item as the realization of relations between the basic participants of a given situation. The concept of situation is represented as a configuration of semantic linguistic dimensions – the characteristics of lexical items’ planes of content that encode information on a certain aspect of a situation or its fragment conceptualization. The relevance of the model being a representation of multidimensional semantic space is verified based on the results of the subjective scaling procedure. It has been ascertained that the lexical items’ semantics of contrasted languages encode and distribute information among four semantic linguistic dimensions: representational, sentential, relational, and epidigmatic. It is posited that the representational semantic dimension encodes information on cognitive values of situation participants, the sentential one – on a set and relations of situation participants, the relational one – on the degree of positional activities or salience of situation participants, the epidigmatic one – on the mechanisms and strategies of a situation concept extension. In order to ascertain the content of situation concept and to establish the ways the information is encoded and distributed in the semantics of lexical items, a directed associative experiment has been used. In reproducing the specificity of the worldview, the expediency of further psycholinguistic research of lexical semantic models in cognitive, functional, and comparative aspects is claimed.&nbsp;</p> Oleh Demenchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Language Development as a Change of the Parameter Pattern of the Language System <p>The article advances linguistic synergetics as a novel research methodology by focusing on applicability of synergetic principles to language development studies. Synergetics is a name for the science of complexity that deals with principles of emergence, self-organisation and self-regulation of complex systems. From the perspective of the synergetic approach, a human language is considered an open, dynamic, non-linear, self-organizing system with all its hierarchical subsystems and elements coherently interconnected and controlled by governing parameters. The latter are considered to be principles of grammatical structure imposing constraints on the range of structural variation permitted in a given language. Any human language, as a synergetic system, has its own set of parameters to characterize peculiarities of its structural organization. It is parameters that highlight grammatical differences between languages. From this angle language development is understood as a change of the parameter pattern of a given language system, which causes the latter to self-organize into a new state. It is assumed that at any given moment the system of a language has its own parameter pattern. Any change within this pattern is but a signal of changes of the whole synergetic system. The article focuses on the following four parameters peculiar to Old English, namely: The null subject parameter, The head directionality parameter, The reflexive domain parameter, and The question movement parameter. The article shows that the&nbsp; typological shift of English is based on the mechanism of changes within the parameter pattern of the language. As a result, the Old English synthetic language became the Modern English analytical language. A close examination of historical dynamics of English within its different language levels indicates that language never changes chaotically but has an underlying order determined by certain grammatical parameters of the language system. &nbsp;Mechanisms of self-organization of a complex system lie in the changes within its parameters. By contrast, the structural stability of the language is provided by stability of a great number of control parameters of the language mega-system.</p> Tetiana Dombrovan, Kateryna Oleksandrenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Features of Persuasiveness and Suggestiveness in Legal Discourse <p>The article is devoted to the problem of persuasiveness and suggestiveness as well as ways of their manifestation.&nbsp; The phenomenon of persuasiveness has become the center of attention for many scientists lately, especially since nowadays the ways of influence on public opinion have become more complex and not so obvious. And furthermore, suggestiveness is the new trend in linguistic research. That is why it is important to analyse, on the one hand, how persuasiveness and suggestiveness are manifested on the linguistic level and, on the other hand, how they influence the arrangement of the language means in the texts of legal discourse.&nbsp; The goal of the research was achieved with the help of such scientific methods as: linguistic observation and analysis as well as cognitive method, critical discourse analysis method, pragmatic analysis method.</p> <p>The type of discourse (either persuasive or suggestive) determines both the choice of language means and their arrangement. Fronting, discourse markers, sentences with introductory there and it as well as extraposed sentences are widely used in the suggestive type of discourse while nominalisation and transferred negation are inherent in the persuasive type. In the texts of persuasive discourse neutral lexical means are primarily used, whereas emotionally charged&nbsp;adjectives and adverbs, idioms and intensifying words are characteristic of the suggestive discourse. From the point of arrangement, the persuasive type is clearly structured and can be presented in the form of scheme. The suggestive type has no clear logical construction. More detailed analysis of the legal discourse (persuasiveness and suggestiveness in writing) is the prospect of further research studies.</p> Margarita Zaitseva, Iryna Lypko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Psycholinguistic Computerized Tools of Linguistic and Translation Studies Discourse Analysis <p>Recently, researchers in the field of linguistics, psycholinguistics, psychology of language, translation studies and other related fields have shown an increased interest in studying linguistic features of discourse. An increasing amount of studies on deception, means of suggestion and manipulation in discourse clearly indicate that there is a relationship between&nbsp;the use of function words, discourse cognitive compexity and speakers’ emotional states, his/her hidden intentions. Function words as ‘style words’ (Tausczik &amp; Pennebaker, 2010) including pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions, articles are processed automatically due to their procedural meaning. This paper is focused on the application aspects of two computerized methods – Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), and Textanz that are sensitive to function words. Designed by J. Pennebaker, social psychologist from University of Texas in Austin, and his colleagues (Pennebaker et al., 2007), LIWC as a text analysis program that counts words in linguistic and psychological categories helps a researcher detect meaning in a wide variety of experimental settings, including to demonstrate information distortion in political discourse and translation. Our previous investigation on deception validated LIWC’s potential in identifying information distortion in English political discourse. The current study was aimed at verifying the above mentioned programs’ ability to detect deviations in translating. The authors found that such translation universals as simplification, normalization, and explicitation are markers of information distortion, or the “third code” (Frawley, 1984), in the target versions. Another important finding was that&nbsp; they can be easily traced in English-Ukrainian parallel and comparable corpora through the use of LIWC and Textanz – reliable detectors of linguistic means with mostly procedural meaning.</p> Serhii Zasiekin, Yuliia Rosenhart ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Psycholinguistic Methods of Suggestion Strategies Realization as US Presidents’ G. Bush Jr. and B. Obama Conceptual Style Markers <p>The article defines the conceptual style as the object of linguistic analysis; two main conceptual styles – the analytical and the relational ones – have been described. The analytical conceptual style is associated with formally organized families, while the relational conceptual style is characteristic for the people, who originate from the families, not formally organized. It has been proved that the conceptual style of G.&nbsp;Bush Jr. is analytical, the conceptual style of B.&nbsp;Obama is relational. The main tactics of suggestion influence strategies, namely, the tactics of information deletion and information generalization, have been singled out. The main language means of information deletion realization, which we call suggestogens, namely, nominalizing elements, non-specific nouns, non-specific pronouns, passive constructions, comparative / superlative constructions, have been analysed. The main language means of information generalization realization, which we call suggestogens, namely, universal quantifiers, modal operators of possibility / necessity, intensifiers, have been analysed. It has been proved that typical suggestogens, used by the US Presidents, serve as markers of their conceptual styles. In the political discourse of G.&nbsp;Bush Jr. non-specific nouns, non-specific pronouns, modal operators of possibility / necessity prevail, as individuals with analytical style tend to excessively use abstract lexemes and in their speech verbs are more frequent. In the political discourse of B.&nbsp;Obama intensifiers and comparative/superlative constructions are more frequent, as in the speech of individuals with relational style emotional information prevails over cognitive one and adjectives are more frequent.</p> Diana Kalishchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Psychological and Linguistic Description of Technology Discourse of New Media <p>The paper focuses on the potential of psychological and linguistic analysis of new media – the media that use various means of content delivery (for instance, online and offline versions of newspapers) and include social networks, blogosphere services, etc.; it has been proved, that technologization and manipulative techniques applied to Internet discourse, which is defined as the format of new media realization, are of great importance under the conditions of hybrid war and establishing social control. Technologization of new media discourse is performed by means of various psycholinguistic tools: NLP techniques, linguistic and cognitive mechanisms of Imagineering, inspiration, engagement into communication, framing of situations, creating a “circle of insiders”, amalgamation, drifting of notions, etc. The importance of these technologies is enhanced by communicative capabilities of cyberspace.</p> <p>The research demonstrates the possibilities of psychological and linguistic analysis (description) of the technologized Russian-language media discourse in Germany, in particular the method of defining the information interests and values of different social groups by the information interests matrix, the intent-analysis and the method of evaluative differentiation for specifying the level of importance of a particular social group (network) on the Internet, communicants’ values, as well as identifying psycholinguistic technologies of influence, with the help of which communication dominance of certain players is provided.</p> <p>We came to the conclusion that Russian-language media actively use psycholinguistic technologies for the implementation of social cyber-attacks – attacks on the consciousness of information consumers by means of the release of a manipulative signal in the social network or through manipulation of an existing signal with the aim of achieving the desired results – chaos, panic and mass disorders.</p> <p>The consequences of this type of attack are purely psychological. Such a result is achieved by means of a number of technologies: the creation of attractive content, the use of new methods for the dissemination of traditional content; the creation of influential platforms, the horizontal broadcast of narratives, the influence of public figures on global audiences, the intensifying of information by every communicator who supports and accordingly spreads certain ideas.</p> Larysa Kompantseva ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Factor of Biovitality in Predicative Organization of English Action Songs <p>The article presents the features of the predicative organization of English action songs taking into account the biovitality factor. The object of the study is the English action songs, and the subject is their predicative organization, taking into account the biovitality factor. The methods of induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and concretization, methods of observation, classification and systematization, as well as elements of quantitative calculations are used in the article.</p> <p>Genre specificity of English action songs is a three-dimensional format: concept - word – action. These texts are inalienable in the child's cognition of the world, because it is action that helps to describe and show the phenomena of the environment, and song poetry reinforces imagery and plot. Predicative organization of English action songs should be described with the help of temporal, modal and personal nets. The productive tense forms in these texts revealed the present indefinite and the past indefinite, which indicates the importance of regular, repetitive actions in the life of the child and marking the sequence of events. English action songs exclude the past continuous, present, past and future perfect and perfect-continuous actions. The modal net is divided into internal and external, where the imperative mode predominates to designate instructions, commands and orders for a certain action for the implementation of which there is a huge number of language opportunities, and modal verbs are used to indicate the possibility / ability to perform an action, which is justified by the first attempts of movements of a child, the cognition of the possibilities of his / her organism – the focus on accentuation of speech intentions, the illumination of certain actions, transforming real world into unreal one. A personal net is distinguished by the use of the third person singular to describe the action, character and quality of another person or object. In English action songs, there is a tendency to emphasize a specific action that is inherent only to a certain subject, which is necessary to distinguish one subject from another.</p> Anastasiia Kuzmenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Paralinguistic Devices as Mechanisms of Influence and Manipulation In Modern English Multimodal Advertising Discourse <p>The article provides an analysis of modern English-language advertising discourse, taking into consideration the paralingual components of communication. Attention is drawn to its heterogeneous and differentiating features. Sample advertisements&nbsp; are displayed in which both linguistic and paralingual components are utilized in the construction of sentences. Substantiation is provided for the correlation between the linguistic and paralingual components which now operate in tandem within advertising discourse and serve as a powerful mechanism of influence on its recipients.</p> <p>The role and the semiotic load of paralinguals are illustrated using specific examples, and the reasons for their involvement and their communicative and pragmatic loading are highlighted. The psycholinguistic features of advertising discourse are considered in the light of its prevailing tendency to semiotic convergence. The study suggests that English-language advertising discourse is characterized by a deviation from established syntactic norms. However, this pattern does not impede the understanding and perception of the product or service that is advertised; on the contrary, it is designed to activate visual receptors, and in that way, to more rapidly reach the side desired by the producer by increasing its revenue and inducing the recipient to use the advertised item, even if the latter initially had no intention of doing so.</p> <p>The paper also demonstrates that this method of presenting information is indicative of the most recent trends in English-language expression—syntactic symbiosis. This leads recipients to consider such combinations not only as an aesthetic polysemiotic formulation, but as a new form of interaction which is intended to establish itself in the long-term memory of the recipients, appealing to the brain receptors through the visual channel.</p> <p>The changes demonstrated at the syntactic level signal the transformational processes that are occurring in modern English. This testifies to the fact that now, for some reason, successful dialogue between the producer and the recipient is not always possible using linguistic means exclusively, and that paralinguals are not only interesting and successful in fulfilling their seemingly insignificant role, but that they are leading modes, which, unlike linguistic ones, are the key visually-oriented bases of influence on the recipient.</p> Larysa Makaruk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Transformation of the Concept “Refugee” in Ukrainian and German Linguocultures (Case Study of Psycholinguistic Analysis) <p>This paper focuses on the study of discursive transformations of the notion of REFUGEE in comparison with the data of Ukrainian and German lexicographic sources. By means of psycholinguistic analysis, the article aims at specifying the changes in the semantic composition of “refugee/Flüchtling” lexemes, which are caused by the latest discursive social and political practices.</p> <p>The psycholinguistic analysis consisted of two parts – lexicographic analysis and the receptive experiment, which allowed for the comparison of the lexicographic (historically formed) meaning of “refugee/Flüchtling” lexemes with their psycholinguistic (discursive semantic modifications caused by social and political events of the 21<sup>st</sup> century) meaning. Lexicographic meaning is understood as the dictionary definition, whereas psycholinguistic meaning – as the interpretation of experimental data, allowing you to specify the meanings associated with the word in the minds of native speakers of the languages studied.</p> <p>Comparison of lexicographic meanings and those obtained during the receptive experiment showed a number of significant differences: in the minds of native speakers, unlike lexicographic sources, the reasons for refugeeism (fear of becoming victims of persecution, natural disaster, catastrophes, life threats) are detailed; semantic components identified by means of the receptive experiment are more emotionally coloured (search of safety, free labour, spiritual causes of refugeeism, discrimination); in the minds of native speakers etymological meanings reappear (‘the one in need of protection’, ‘the one who has lost everything’, ‘fugitive&nbsp;/&nbsp;exile’); the receptive experiment contributed to the elicitation of social causes of refugeeism represented in native speakers’ minds (hunger, unemployment, privation, low standard of living, poverty, economic crisis); the receptive experiment made it possible to elaborate external circumstances predetermining refugeeism (war, terror, external aggression, occupation, dictatorship, violence, conflicts).</p> <p>Psycholinguistic meaning of “refugee/Flüchtling” lexemes turned out to be much closer to the native speakers’ linguistic consciousness than lexicographic one, although it is possible to admit that in any experiments, there are always semantic components that are not actualized by certain interviewees during the experiments.</p> Аndrianna Milio ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Systemic and Creative Aspects of Translation: Psycholinguistic Approach <p>The article deals with highlighting systemic and creative aspects of translation on the basis of psycholinguistic experiment. The <strong>topicality</strong> of the research is determined by the switch form text-oriented to activity-oriented development of modern Translation Studies which requires designing and implementing principally new methodological instruments. Translators’ decisions which demonstrate the elements of systemic and creative thinking were used as an <strong>object</strong> of the research while translation methods and means employed for the objectification of these decisions in translated texts served as a <strong>subject</strong> of the research. The <strong>aim</strong> of the research lies in an attempt to spot and consequently demonstrate systemic and creative manifestations in the translation of nonce formations which appear due to the coordination of translators’ decisions on both horizontal (i.e., for the elements of one variety / type / category) and vertical (i.e., for the elements of different varieties / types / categories) levels of textuality. For the realization of this aim, a four-stage psycholinguistic experiment was conducted in the course of which 95 semiprofessional informants translated the abstract from V.&nbsp;Nestaiko’s fairy tale from Ukrainian into English and later commented on some of their decisions. The conducted research allows to draw the conclusion that translators’ decisions concerning the methods and means of reproducing non-equivalent vocabulary clearly demonstrate the indications of systemic and creative thinking that jointly aim at providing for such emergent properties of translation as naturalness and fluency. Methodologically, conducting psycholinguistic experiments with the participation of MA students contributes to forming a more conscious approach to translation due to the necessity to coordinate different strategies on the textual level which stands as a main sign of systemic and creative thinking.</p> Oleksandr Rebrii, Inna Rebrii ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Lingvo-Sociocultural Specific of Talk Show Translation as a TV Discourse Genre <p>The article is devoted to the linguistic and sociocultural features of the talk show translation as a television discourse genre.</p> <p>That issue studying has a great value for understanding of the national culture specificity and the mechanisms of communicative acts influence on the linguistic world picture of American representatives’ consciousness. In the article we have analyzed basic sociocultural and linguistic features of the genre, and as a result we distinguished specific and distinct features of American linguistic culture in entertaining TV talk-shows, especially in the so-called “adult discussions” that are performed with invited guests, with the talk-show musical form holding and with entertaining monologues usage like a “stand-up” genre and with puns.</p> <p>On the puns and monologues examples we have analyzed the jokes structure psycholinguistic features and we have also shown the comic sense statements creation features. That knowledge let explain the mechanisms of jokes influence on the consciousness and to understand why they are so funny for the Anglo-Saxon culture representatives. Thematic preferences and the American linguistic culture basic concepts are related to the universal extralinguistic features of talk-show genre that take into account national and cultural communication specificity in American TV show and in American culture.</p> <p>In that direction the research is also a good practical tool, helping to understand the complicated semantic structure of entertaining media text type and the different aspects of personality’s communicative behavior.</p> Yuliia Rybinska ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Phonetics and Phonology as the Two Aspects of one Science of Human Speech Sounding <p>The article enunciates the theory of the unity of phonetics and phonology as the two equally functional aspects of one science, i.e. the science of human speech sounding. The author gives the reasons in favor of such unity and offers a discussion on the problem of the traditional division of this science into two levels – phonetics and phonology, with the apportionment inside phonetics of two sublevels – the proper phonetic sublevel and autonomously phonological (pre-phonological) sublevel. The article also discusses a thesis, belonging to traditional phonology, that phonetics ends and phonology begins where the substance starts to be considered from the functional point of view. The author thinks that the study of the material side of sounds is always conducted by a linguist with some functional, linguistic (psycholinguistic) purpose. The equal rights of the discussed aspects and their equal importance for the language functioning mechanism depend on two-in-one phonological action of a sound unit – constitutional (forming) one and distinctive one. In the spirit of classical (traditional) phonology only that sound quality was always considered to be functional (phonological), which could differentiate the morphemes of a language. Nevertheless, in the author’s opinion, in order such a differentiation could exist, there should be not less but even more fundamental condition fulfilled: there should be such sound quality created, which is acceptable for a certain linguistic system (a language, a dialect, a subdialect). Phonology can’t deal with incorrect speech. Just as following grammar rules leads to a grammatically correct utterance, so phonology being functional phonetics should be oriented to speech, which is correct in a certain language system. Constitution of a phonological unit in the structure of a morph (or word) as a certain language system unit with all its qualitative and quantitative features means nothing else but distinction.</p> Irina Rumyantseva ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Semantic Dominant of Adversative Conjunction “Zato” (‘But’) in the Mirror of Constructive Experiment <p>The article discusses the question of the formal-grammatical status and semantics of the Russian adversative conjunction “zato” (eng. ‘but’) in its usage. According to a number of linguists, the conjunctional function of this formal word is not obvious. The semantics of the conjunction “zato” did not also receive a uniform description. The author shows that some linguists find in the conjunction “zato” the reflection of syncretism of different parts of speech (conjunction and adverb, conjunction and pronominal particle, etc.) or refuse to consider it as the conjunction at all. Besides, not all linguists agree that the semantics of compensation predominates in the use of the conjunction “zato”. The article presents a constructive experiment in which native speakers had to compose and write down a sentence with the word “zato”. It turned out that in the usage “zato” performs the function of an adversative conjunction or its component and has a semantic dominant – the meaning of compensation, indicating the transition to the positive part of the message. The presence of a semantic dominant in the conjunction “zato” gets a psycholinguistic explanation. According to the author, the development of a semantic dominant in the conjunction “zato” is connected with the development of its formal, actually grammatical meaning of compensation. In the experiment it is shown that in a number of sentences-reactions the conjunction “zato” expresses such semantic relations as comparative, comparative and adversative, and causal justification. However this semantic interpretation of the conjunction “zato”, not connected with the positive restriction, is poorly supported in the usage. In the experiment another regularity is also revealed: if the conjunction “zato” sometimes does not express the meaning of compensation, then the conjunctional complexes formed with its participation never lose this semantics. In addition, the article expressed a semantic hypothesis about the origin of the conjunctional complex “no zato” (Eng. ‘but’). The author believes that the need for creation of a complex marker of the compensatory relations has been caused, on the one hand, by the causal and adversative syncretism of the conjunction “zato”, and on the other hand, by the low-expressiveness of the all-adversative conjunction “no” as a marker of compensation.</p> Kirill Seagal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Professional Competence of the Higher School Teacher: Psycholinguistic Dimension <p>The article reveals the nature of the higher school teachers’ professional competence based on the study of special psychological features of their pedagogical activities. The correlation between the concepts of competence and competency is considered. Certain psycholinguistic qualities of the professionally competent higher school teacher are defined, namely, positioning of the own mental space and the control over the mental space of the audience; the dialogue between the higher school learners based on the Plato’s model in the form of mental space broadening of those who study and not in the form of information exchange; realization of the opportunity to communicate and use the dialogue style registers; demonstration of individual communication style, possession of different speech genres and realization of the intra textual connections.</p> Volodymyr V. Serikov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Speech Rate and Filled Pauses as Variables Involved in Efl Students’ Identification of Australian English <p>This article involves a psycholinguistic experimental study of how speech rate and filled pauses affect the identification of Australian English by the advanced students of English as a foreign language (EFL). 30 EFL students in total (further referred to as participants) were recruited for the study at Stockholm University (15 participants) and atLund University (15 participants) respectively. All the participants were university students enrolled at English II university programmes. All the participants indicated that their first language (L1) was Swedish. Bilingual participants were excluded from the experiment. The participants were asked to listen to four audio files in English and to identify the variety of the English language the audio files were presented in. Two of the audio files were read-alouds and two were free recalls. Free recalls contained filled pauses, whist no filled pauses were present in the read-alouds. The manipulated variables in this study involved filled pauses and speech rate. The aim of the study was to examine whether those variables would impact upon the participants’ identification of Australian English. The results of the study suggest that filled pauses and the difference in the speech rate map onto a high degree of variability in Australian English identification. Data analysis indicated that only 10% of the participants identified the speakers’ variety as Australian English. The results indicate that those participants who have experienced stays abroad in the English-speaking countries identify Australian English consistently. These findings are further presented and discussed in the article.</p> Oleksandr Kapranov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Problem of Sample Representativeness for Conducting Experimental and Broad Psychological Research <p>The article is devoted to the problem of creating a representative sample of respondents in the course of experimental and broad psycholinguistic research, first of all, its quantitative composition and structure. The primary method of research was the psycholinguistic experiment, the main stage of which is a free association experiment with "playfulness" as a stimulus word. The use of mathematical and statistical procedures confirmed the hypothesis and helped to achieve the goal. The hypothesis of the experimental psycholinguistic research into "playfulness" stimulus as a stable personality trait was to prove the effectiveness of applying specific strategies to determine the representative quantitative composition of samples by means of comparing the frequency of the studied characteristics. In terms of theoretical substantiation, the approaches to the determination of the quantitative composition of the experimental sample and the statistical calculations based on the results of the practical research into associative reactions to the stimulus "playfulness", it is proved that as the size of the sample decreases, the distinction grows, meaning that groups with fewer respondents do not reflect all the characteristics of the general population. The assumption was proved that the number of 100 people or close to that could not meet this requirement in the case of extensive research, the minimum size of the sample should be about 400-500 people, though this number is not always sufficient either. The sufficient quantitative composition of the experimental sample, in large general populations, varies from 400 to 1500 persons and depends on the quantitative and qualitative structure of the general population and the organizational peculiarities of the research. So, the sample should be enough to meet the requirement, which is to reflect the main tendencies and characteristics of both the general population and the purpose of the study.</p> Iia Gordiienko-Mytrofanova, Yevhen Pidchasov, Serhii Sauta, Iuliia Kobzieva ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Traumatic Narrative in Psycholinguistic Study Dimension <p>The traumatic narrative as a raw material for theoretical and experimental research of traumatic memory is represented in the article. The traumatic and non-traumatic experience is differentiated in the article. Emotionally negative and positive life events are represented in autobiographical memory and expressed in the autobiographical narrative. The traumatic events are represented in traumatic memory and verbalized in the traumatic narrative. We report that stressful traumatic events as a part traumatic memory are in the mediating zone between autobiographical memory and PTSD. The propositional analysis is used as psycholinguistic methodology for traumatic memory research. Each propositional tree is divided into two subtrees: a context subtree and a fact subtree. Further fact is divided into agent (they, he/she/it) and predicate, represented by relation and object (patient). The context is explicated by time and place.&nbsp; Presupposing the great significance of the role of self and others in the positive, negative and traumatic life events, we differentiate internal (I, we) or external agents (they, he/she/it) and internal (me, us) or external (them, him/her objects (patients). The significant differences in propositional units and number of words in traumatic narratives vs. autobiographical narratives were revealed. It supports the idea of different ways of coding and representation of thee life events: emotionally negative, emotionally positive and stressful traumatic. Moreover it allows revealing the hot spots in the traumatic event and situation expressed by the most frequent propositional units and therefore optimizing the therapeutic process for PTSD treatment.</p> Larysa Zasiekina, Khrystyna Khvorost, Dariia Zasiekina ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Psycholinguistic Aspects of Focalization in a Paradigm of Narrative Discours <p>The author of this article emphasizes that&nbsp; study of the narrative discourse on the example of English literature, the definition of psycholinguistic aspects of such a discourse is a very actual problem of the present, since this kind of discourse plays an important role in all genres of fiction. In this article, the narrative discourse will be analyzed on the example of graphic novels, and based on the analysis will be determined the psycholinguistic features of the narrative discourse. In the article it was emphasized that the analysis of the materials presented in the form of comics is important for defining the features of the narrative discourse, because the person who is observing is only the object of visualization, and not its subject. In the case of the character watches for something, the reader will be positioned exactly like this character.Herewith, a certain type of positioning is important for the narration of text material presented in the form of comics, because it is this type of positioning greatly affects the values created by the reader’s work.</p> <p>It was emphasized that the psycholinguistic narrative paradigm in the form of comics should be considered in the context in which comics are the assembly of both words and images, and thus the reader should carry out both visual and linguistic interpretation of the content. The psycholinguistic paradigm of comics contributes to the fact that artistic schemes (for example, the point of view, symmetry, the contextualization by means of contextual details), and sections of linguistics (for example, grammar, literature, syntax) appear to overlap each other, create an integral frame, which strenghtens the reader’s understandinf of a certain work.</p> <p>In this article the context of “focusing” from the point of psycholinguistic view was analyzed. The author of this article described his own version of comic comprehension processing, which is based on the knowledge of various narrative schemes, constantly changing the source data and obtaining the new information. Understanding in this case is represented as a series of transitions from the external to the internal focus. The latter often happens in a visual form, creating visual continuity through the processing of information from the bottom to top, while the change in the time and space of the plot occurs by text information processing from the top to bottom, combining previous knowledge of the characters and actions of the characters of the work into the new contextual scripts.</p> <p>Analyzing the work “Night Guards” by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons, the author of this article proposed the following psycholinguistic aspects of the narrative discourse, namely: visual accentuation, updating of information, meta-narrative&nbsp; presentation of the text, contrasting visual word-combinations, actualization of the narrative potential.</p> Ernest Ivashkevych ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Psycho-Professional Discourse as an Expression of the Subject’s of Speech Intentional Orientation to an Addressee <p>The article is devoted to the problem of speech communication, which takes place in the dyad of partners of the psychotherapeutic alliance. It reveals the specifics of the informal, intimate kind of professional-psychological discourse which is intentionally directed by the subject of speech (the psychotherapist) to support the addressee (client), as well as it shines a light on understanding of the distinguished and nominated by the author of the discourse-support and its subtypes, in particular: discourse-elimination (removal) of the reproaches of conscience, discourse-defense, discourse-hope, discourse- consolation, discourse-conciliation, discourse-praise, discourse-approval, discourse-motivation, discourse-inspiration. Discourse-support is considered in the article as an explicit psychotherapist’s verbal help, which allows maintaining the viability of the client, strengthens his life-affirming position, which appeared under the influence of psychotherapeutic interactions to support new vivid patterns of feelings, consciousness and behavior; to inspire confidence in achieving the possible, to cheer on the probable beginnings of the client. The subtypes of discourses are characterized and described in accordance with target and intentional parameters with indication of specific examples. The theoretical and empirical results of the research, presented in the article, are based on the data of the discourse analysis, intent-analysis, meta-analysis and the semantic analysis of dialogical statements; they give grounds for considering discourse-support as a constructive speech effect of the subject of discursive influence on the addressee. In psychotherapeutic doctrine, this action is manifested in the fact that the therapist explicitly or implicitly passes to the client a programmed view of the world and it is a certain way of being, in which all that is important for the well-being of a person is subjected in some cases to investigation, cognition, objectification, reflection and control, and in others – to the unconscious states and beliefs under the influence of suggestions. The analyzed discourses cause changes in feelings, ideas, words or actions of other people with whom psychologists enter into communication, they become the main factor of their discursive activity, based on the recognition of the inner world of the subject which is influenced, an important psychological substrate of making an effort in order to help him to make some constructive changes in his life, to make his life more lucky, self-sufficient and more realized.</p> Heorhii Kalmykov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Psychologistic Phenomena «Knowledge of the Language» and «Knowledge About Language»: Problems of Relationship and Functioning In Children's Speech <p>The article is devoted to the coverage of some aspects of preschool and junior school age children’s mastering of language knowledge and knowledge about language, the distinction between these two varieties of knowledge, the disclosure of their differences and features, and the specifics of functioning. It describes some strategies and tactics for the empirical acquisition by preschoolers of language knowledge, in particular: imitation, constructing, unconscious language generalizations, attempts and mistakes, word formation, adaptation to the conditions of speech communication, etc., as well as features of mastering knowledge about language; the procedures for using meta-language and language learned in a natural way are presented; the essence of unconscious, unintentional spontaneous level of children’s learning of language knowledge at the age of 5 years is revealed and the definition of child’s language competence is formulated, under which it means the ability to understand and produce everyday sentences (statements), distinguishing grammatically correct from the wrong ones without changing the meaning of the context to rephrase sentences, phrases, and also microthemes, by making synonymous replacement, to experience lexical and grammatical-stylistic meanings of words, their polysemy, etc. In the article significant differences of language knowledge (knowledge of the language) from knowledge about language are shown, as well as here are presented two kinds of metalanguage knowledge– declarative and procedural, the significance of the latter for the improvement of speech and speech competence of children is substantiated. In the article great attention is also paid to proving the role of different levels of functionality of linguistic and metalanguage knowledge in the production of utterances. The more advanced knowledge is suggested to consider empirical knowledge of the language than studied knowledge about language, especially in those cases where the latter are, firstly, only declarative, and procedural – are absent altogether; secondly, when procedural knowledge is mechanically learned, and therefore they are almost unconscious and non-functional, although they can be explored by children in memory.</p> Larisa Kalmykova, Galina Novikova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Peculiarities of the Development of Adolescents Interpersonal Speech Communication <p>The article considers interpersonal speech communication of adolescents as a semantic interaction of its subjects, which involves the presence of such speech abilities as speaking and listening, the functional communicative unit of which is the statement (message) that is inextricably linked with the lexical-semantic and grammatical meanings. It is assumed that: а) the system-forming factor of the organization of interpersonal speech communication of adolescents is self-regulation as a purposeful process of their mental activity self-organization; b) the specificity of communicative situations determines the variability of the person's self-regulation during the period of growing-up; c) the main factor in providing the constructive interpersonal speech communication of the growing personality is the updated need for success.</p> <p>The criteria of speech communication of adolescents (speech-linguistic, communicative) and corresponding markers were determined; as diagnostic indicators of the communicative criterion is recognized the ability to listen to others, manifestations of self-control in the process of speech communication, achievement of success in different situations of communicative interpersonal interaction of the young person; the speech-linguistic criterion is represented by such diagnostic indicators as: grammatical and logical characteristics of the statement, the use of the appropriate linguistic means by the adolescent in the process of communicative interpersonal interaction, the expediency of use in expressing the speech units aimed at their positive perception by other people.</p> <p>Based on the analysis of empirical material, the content of interpersonal speech communication of 12-15-year-old adolescents is outlined; the most significant parameters are highlighted that act as the attractors of the sense formation of the communicative circle of adolescents in different situations of social interaction and produce the ability of teenagers to achieve the high level of self-regulation during the realization of interpersonal speech communication. On the basis of the performed quantitative and qualitative data analysis on the determined parameters the peculiarities of the development of interpersonal speech communication in different age groups of teenagers are shown.</p> <p>The results of the empirical research showed slight indicators of the high level of speech communication development among adolescents that are least represented among teenagers of the older age group; this tendency determines destructive (conflict) manifestations of speech-communicative acts in the overwhelming majority of respondents.</p> Tetiana Kyrychenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Communicative Determinants of Professional Self-Fulfilment of University Lecturers <p>Actuality to study psychological characteristics and determinants of professional self-fulfilment of a higher school lecturer as a representative of socionomy professions is determined primarily by the fact that a lecturer is one of the key figures in professional education who supports social and professional ascension of future professionals.</p> <p>In the article we represent that professional communications, which are traditionally regarded in the psychological science as "activities in the activity", are a specific type of activities, it is a communicative (including speaking) activity. A teacher has to perform communicative speech activities in all areas of his/her work: pedagogical, educational, methodical, organizational and others. This comprehensive universality, i.e. the presence of communicative activities at all types of specialist’s professional, scientific and pedagogical work, determines importance of formation and development, first of all, of the communicative competence within the professional competence structure as a key tool of interpersonal communications. Communicative activities are governed by the need to resolve communicative problems arising in the course of professional interaction, and through them, to resolve proper professional problems.</p> <p>The performed statistical analyses of the experimental data and the qualitative interpretations of the regression analysis show that the<strong> “creativity during professional interactions”</strong> is the most prominent predictor of the high level of professional self-fulfilment (general, internal professional and external professional) achieved by these specialists. Thus, creativity as the ability to non-standard resolution of communicative tasks, as a manifestation of creativity in the communicative-speech components of the professional activities and as a form of pedagogical interaction, determines mostly university lecturers’ professional self-fulfilment and implementation of its internal and external professional forms.</p> <p>In addition, the <strong>internal professional self-fulfilment</strong> of these specialists is determined by a number of such sufficiently expressed factors; these are the key criteria of the communicative competence: an instrumental criterion, as well as (in its composition) “adequacy during professional interactions”; the motivational criteria and the “reflection of professional interactions” element of the cognitive criterion; the professional competence criteria, including creative, self-educational and pedagogical; the parameters of lecturers’ non-verbal expressiveness: “formal-dynamic parameters of non-verbal behaviour” and “ability to manage and reflect non-verbal behaviour during pedagogical interactions”; “value orientations”, “rapport” and, finally, “the ability to express own thoughts”.</p> <p>The lecturer’s <strong>external professional self-fulfilment</strong> is determined by such main factors: “internal professional motivation” and “external positive motivation”; “professional competence”, including “informational competence”; “creativity” (in life); the instrumental criterion of the communicative competence includes “adequacy during professional interactions”, the cognitive criterion includes “construction of effective communicative programs” and the motivational criterion include “the motive for communicative difficulty overcoming”.</p> <p>Research&nbsp;showed that among most expressed&nbsp; predictors of professional self-fulfilment of university lecturer <strong>communicative factors</strong> have &nbsp;a decision value, that predefined by the specific of him professional activity &nbsp;that &nbsp;takes &nbsp;place in form a scientifically-pedagogical commonunication.</p> Olga Korniyaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0300