Psychological Features of Production the Description by 5-6-Years Old Children
The article presents the linguistic features of the description as one of the types of monologue. It is determined that the description is a functional-semantic type of speech, which is its typified variety as a sample, a model of a monologue message in the form of recalculation of simultaneous or permanent features of an object in the broad sense and those having a definite linguistic structure for this purpose. Synchronous (simultaneous) connections, which are expressed in this type of speech, are explicit, visible, directly observable and require a logical comprehension. Linguistic features of the descriptive type of utterance are established according to its types: portrait, landscape, characteristic, interior, still life, description of action, object, state of nature or person. Structural and syntactic properties of this monologue type of speech are characterized. According to psycholinguistic data, it is established that a child in the process of thinking can record objectively existing relationships and express them in a language in the form of a description. The indicators of the communicative criterion were distinguished: the variety of descriptions that children create; the number of micro themes and the degree of their deployment; the informativeness of children’s descriptions; the compositional features of descriptions; the syntax of a coherent whole (grammatical methods of inter phrasal communication); syntactic peculiarities of children’s descriptions (word-combinations and sentences) and their grammatical system; the adequacy of lexical and grammatical means of child’s expression to the language standards of discreption. The particular attention in the work is paid to the psycholinguistic analysis of descriptive statements of the 5-6 years old children according to the certain indicators of communicative criteria. According to the obtained results of the analysis of speech utterances – the descriptions of recipients, the assumption is made that the consideration of the linguistic features of this functional-semantic type of speech in the process of descriptive statements constructing will make it possible to use consciously the diversity of the syntactic content of the linguistic material inherent in this type of a monologue speech, to take into account its compositional peculiarities and grammatical methods of inter phrasal communication.
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