About approaches to psycholinguiistic diagnostics of narrative speech in the preschool age children
The article presents theoretical principles of study the verbal oral speaking of children of a preschool age on the basis of the analysis of studies by T.V. Akhutina, D. B. Elkonin, Z.M. Istomina, K.V. Zasipkina, L.O. Kalmykova, M.M. Koltsova, N. I. Lepskaya, A. O. Lublinskaya, I. G. Ovchinnikova, A.O.Romanova, S. L. Rubinstein, N. M. Yurieva and others; the definition of the phenomenon “narration” is clarified, its characteristics are generalized; the criteria and indicators of study the peculiarities of the development of verbal spoken language of children of a preschool age are distinguished and substantiated with such indicators as: sustainability of motives, independence of motives, cognitive orientation, social direction of speech motives; internal-language criterion, represented by indicators, namely: semantic syntax and the choice of meanings in internal speech in time sequence, semantic syntax and the choice of verbal meanings of words; lexical-grammatical criterion presented by a complex indicator of formal grammatical structuring and the choice of words in form (lexeme) with the establishment of: the types of sentences, types of phrases, the presence of morphological classes of the words, the presence of lexical-semantic group of words, the number of words in sentences, the formal grammatical coherence; context criterion, correlated with the following indicators: the sequence in the story presentation, the logical presentation of the story, connectivity, integrity; structural criterion, which provides such indicators as: the presence of compositional parts, the order of words in the sentence; intonation criterion, the essence of which is revealed through such indicators: melodic, tempo, phrasal and logical accents, intonation of the ending. The chosen criteria are based on the analysis of speech generation mechanism, which is represented by the operations on motive emergence, the formation of thought, the construction of the internal semantic program, the semantic structure of sentence, the lexico-grammatical structure of sentence and motor program of a syntagma, which allows to study the peculiarities of development in children of the internal and external operations of logical and sequential creation of the story with taking into account its essential features, in particular, context, intonation, etc.
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