Тext Understanding as a Special Kind of Understanding


Keywords: understanding, text understanding, perception, interpretation, emotional identification, awareness, experience, knowledge, secondary text

Abstract

The analysis of modern theories of text understanding are presented in the article. Different theoretical methods and techniques were used for this purpose: deductive and inductive methods, analysis and synthesis, generalization, systematization and modeling as well as some interpretive methods that are based on specific principles of systemic, activity, cognitive and organizational approaches. The author notes that six approaches to the interpretation of understanding can beaccented in modern psychological literature. They are understanding as knowledge, understanding as comprehension, understanding as interpretation, understanding as a process of solving tasks, understanding as the inclusion of new knowledge in the subject's experience, understanding as awareness. But only four of them are used to understand the text. The conclusion is made as a result of systematization of the achievements of these approaches. It is concluded that the process of text understanding is a complex process that occurs at several levels: from the simplest to perception, through interpretation (thinking and memory), to a higher level that is consciousness, where emotional identification and awareness are presented. As a result of understanding someorganized ideas about the text (model, conclusions, mental representation) appear in the mind of the subject. Next they recieve the verbal form and objectify as a secondary text (received from the recipient as a reaction to the read text), that represented concept or secondary meanings. The process and the result of text understanding depend on some subjective factors (the recipient experience (apperception), subjective state at the time of reception, the cultural and historical context) and some objective factors (textual or semantic dominants). Context forms not only preliminary expectations, but also verifies the final result of understanding. It is anew secondary meanings, that accord with already existing senses in the mind. Thus the semantic level of reader consciousness enrich and reorganize, that are represented as change in behavior.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Avtonomova, N.S., & Filatov, V.P. (1981). Ponimaniye kak logiko gnoseologicheskaya problema [Understanding as a logical gnoseological problem]. Voprosy filosofii – Questions of philosophy, 5, 164–169 [in Russian].

Brudnyy, A.A. (1991). Ponimaniye i tekst [Understanding and text]. Zagadka chelovecheskogo ponimaniya – Riddle of human understanding (pp. 114–128). Moscow [in Russian].

Bogin, G.I. (n.d.). Tipologiya ponimaniya teksta [Typology of text understanding]. Linguistics-online.narod.ru. Retrieved from http://linguistics-online.narod.ru/index/0-240

Vinograd, T., & Flores, F. (1996). O ponimanii kompyuterov i poznaniya [About the understanding of computers and knowledge]. Yazyk i intellect – Language and Intellect (pp. 185–229). Moscow [in Russian].

Gadamer, G.-G. (1988). Istina i metod [Truth and method]. Moscow : Progress [in Russian].

Deyk, T.A. van, & Kinch, V. (1988). Strategii ponimaniya svyaznogo teksta [Strategies for understanding of coherent text]. Novoye v zarubezhnoy lingvistike – New in foreign linguistics, 23, 153–211 [in Russian].

Dorofeyev, Yu. V. (2003). Problema sootnesennosti yazykovykh sredstv v khudozhestvennom tekste (na materiale stikhotvoreniya V. Vysotskogo «V dorogu zhivo…») [The problem of the correlation of linguistic means in an artistic text (on the material of V. Vysotsky’s poem “On the Road qukly ...”)]. Kultura narodov Prichernomorya – Culture of the Peoples of the Black Sea Region, 38, 109–112 [in Russian].

Zalevskaya, A.A. (1990). Slovo v leksikone cheloveka. Psikholingvisticheskoye issledovaniye [The word in the human lexicon. Psycholinguistic research]. Voronezh [in Russian].

Zinchenko, V.P. (1997). Rabota ponimaniya [Work of Understanding]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovaniye – Psychological Science and Education, 3, 42–52 [in Russian].

Znakov, V.V. (2005). Psikhologiya ponimaniya: Problemy i perspektivy [Psychology of Understanding: Problems and Perspectives]. Moscow : Izd -vo “Institut psikhologii RAN” [in Russian].

Isenbayeva, G.I. (2010). Metodologiya porozhdeniya vtorichnogo teksta: kognitivnyy aspekt [Methodology of secondary text generation: cognitive aspect]. Extended abstract of Doctor’s thesis. Ufa [in Russian].

Karpa, І.B. (2010). Funkcіonalnі ta pragmatichnі harakteristiki іnteraktivnoї vіrtualnoї komunіkacії (na materіalііnformacіjno-dovіdkovogo servіsu Yahoo!Answers). [Functional and pragmatic characteristics of interactive virtual communication (on the basis of information and reference service Yahoo! Answers)]. Extended abstract of Doctor’s thesis. Herson [in Ukrainian].

Kostyuk, V.N. (1980). Obyasneniye, predskazaniye, ponimaniye [Explanation, prediction, understanding]. Logiko gnoseologicheskiye issledovaniya kategorialnoy struktury myshleniya – Logico-gnoseological studies of the categorical structure of thinking (pp.246–261). Kyiv : Naukova Dumka [in Russian].

Luriya, A.R. (1975). Osnovnyye problemy neyrolingvistiki [The main problems of neurolinguistics]. Moscow : Izd-vo Mosk. un-ta [in Russian].

Maksymenko, S.D. (2010). Zahalna psykholohiya [General Psychology]. Kyiv : Tsentr uchbovoyi literatury [in Ukrainian].

Moklytsya, A.V. (2005). Movni dominanty khudozhnikh styliv polskoho modernizmu [Linguistic Dominants of Art Styles of Polish Modernism]. Candidate’s thesis. Lviv [in Ukrainian].

Morozkyna, E.A., & Nasanbaeva, É.R. (2013). Smyslovaya ynterpretatsyya teksta v hermenevtycheskoy modely perevoda [The meaningful interpretation of the text in the hermeneutic model of translation]. Vestnyk Bashkyrskoho unyversyteta. – Bashkir University Bulletin, 18(1), 86–87 [in Russian].

Nesterova, N.M. (2009). Psikholingvistika teksta, ili yest li smysl v tekste? [Psycholinguistics of the text, or is there any sense in the text?]. Voprosy psikholingvistiki – Journal of psycholinguistics, 9, 213–219 [in Russian].

Novikov, A.I. (1999). Smysl: sem dikhotomicheskikh priznakov [Sense: seven dichotomous signs]. Teoriya i praktika rechevykh issledovaniy – Theory and practice of speech research (pp. 132–144). Moscow : Moskovskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet [in Russian].

Orap, M.O. (2014). Psykholohichni osnovy orhanizatsiyi movlennyevoho dosvidu osobystosti [Psychological bases of organization of the individual speech experience]. Doctor’s thesis. Lutsk : Lutsk DU [in Ukrainian].

Rakitov, A.I. (1986). Ponimaniye i ratsionalnost [Understanding and rationality]. Voprosy filosofii – Questions of philosophy, 7, 69–73 [in Russian].

Rapoport, G.N., & Gerts, A.G. (2011). Biologicheskiy i iskusstvennyy razum: CH.1. Soznaniye, myshleniye i emotsii [Biological and artificial intelligence]. Soznanie, myshlenie i jemocii – Consciousness, thinking and emotions (Vol. 1). Moscow : Knizhnyy dom «LIBROKOM» [in Russian].

Selitskaya, L.A. (1976). Gnoseologicheskaya priroda ponimaniya [Epistemological nature of understanding]. Candidate’s thesis. Leningrad [in Russian].

Torndayk, E. (1935). Protsess ucheniya u cheloveka [The process of teaching in humans]. Moscow : Uchpedgiz [in Russian].

Chepelyeva, N.V. (1992). Psykholohiya chytannya navchalnoyi ta naukovoyi literatury v systemi profesiynoyi pidhotovky studentiv [Psychology of Academic and Scientific Literature Reading in the System of Students’ Professional Training]. Extended abstract of Doctor’s thesis. Kyiv : KDPI im. M.P. Drahomanova [in Ukrainian].

Fedorova, O. (2014). Eksperimentalnyy analiz diskursa [Experimental analysis of discourse]. Moscow : Yazyki slavyanskoy kultury [in Russian].

Akimoto, Y., Takahashi, H., Gunji, A., Kaneko, Y., Asano, M., Matsuo, J., Ota, M., Kunugi, H., Mazuka, R.,  Yoko, Y. (2017). Alpha band event-related desynchronization underlying social situational context processing during irony comprehension: A magnetoencephalography source localization study. Brain and Language, 175, 42–46. doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2017.09.002

Bitan, T., Kaftory, A., Meiri-Leib, A., Eviatar, Z., & Peleg, O. (2017). Phonological ambiguity modulates resolution of semantic ambiguity during reading: An fMRI study of Hebrew. Neuropsychology, 31(7), 759–777. doi: 10.1037/neu0000357

Bosco, F. M.,  Gabbatore, I. (2017). Theory of mind in recognizing and recovering communicative failures. Applied Psycholinguistics, 38(1), 57–88. doi.org/10.1017/S0142716416000047

Cummine, J., Cribben, I., Luu, C., Kim, E., Bakhtiari, R., Georgiou, G., & Boliek, C. A. (2016). Understanding the role of speech production in reading: Evidence for a print-to-speech neural network using graphical analysis. Neuropsychology, 30(4), 385-397.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000236

De Freitas, P.V., Peruzzi, Ella Da, Mota, M.M.,  Deacon, S.H. (2018). Morphological awareness, word reading, and reading comprehension in Portuguese. Applied Psycholinguistics, 39(3), 507–525. doi.org/10.1017/S0142716417000479

Downs, R.M., & Stea, D. (1973). Cognitive maps and spatial behavior: Process and product. In Downs, R.M. Stea (Eds.), Image and environment (pp. 8–26). Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company DOI: 10.1002/9780470979587.ch41

Foucart, A., Romero-Rivas, C., Gort, B.L., & Costa, A. (2016). Discourse comprehension in L2: Making sense of what is not explicitly said. Brain and Language, 163, 32–41. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2016.09.001

Fodor, J.A. (1975). The language of thought. Harvard: Harvard University Press. DOI 10.2307/2184356

Giustolisi, B., Vergallito, A, Cecchetto, C., Varoli, E., & Lauro, L.J. (2018). Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal gyrus enhances sentence comprehension. Brain and Language, 176, 36–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2017.11.001

Graesser, A. C., Singer, M., & Trabasso, T. (1994). Constructing inferences during narrative text comprehension. Psychological Review, 101, 371–395.

Graesser, А. С., Wiemer-Hastings, P., & Wiemer-Hastings, K. (2001). Constructing Inferences and Relations during Text Comprehension. In Sanders, Schilperoord, & Spooren (Eds.), Text representation: linguistic and psycholinguistic aspects (pp. 21–26). Amsterdam / Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Hahne, C., Goldhammer, F., Kröhne, U.,  Naumann, J. (2018). The role of reading skills in the evaluation of online information gathered from search engine environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 223–234. doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.10.004

Houghton, G. (2018). Action and perception in literacy: A common-code for spelling and reading. Psychological Review, 125(1), 83–116. doi: 10.1037/rev0000084

Hubers, F., Snijders, T.M., & Hoop H. (2016). How the brain processes violations of the grammatical norm: An fMRI study. Brain and Language, 163, 22–31. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2016.08.006

Mason, L., Scrimin, S., Zaccoletti, S., Tornatora, M.C., & Goetz, T. (2018). Webpage reading: Psychophysiological correlates of emotional arousal and regulation predict multiple-text comprehension. Computers in Human Behavior, 87, 317–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.05.020

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1992). Inference during reading. Psychological Review, 99, 440–466.

Myers, Jerome L., & Edward, J. O’Brien (1998). Accessing the discourse representation during reading. Discourse Processes, 26(2), 131–157. DOI: 10.1080/01638539809545042

Ohadi, J., Brown, B., Trub, L., & Rosenthal L. (2018). I just text to say I love you: Partner similarity in texting and relationship satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 126–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.08.048

Schank, R.C. (1986). Explanation patterns: Understanding mechanically and creatively. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Sharon, E.M., & Thompson-Schill, L. (2017). Tracking competition and cognitive control during language comprehension with multi-voxel pattern analysis. Brain and Language, 165, 21–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2016.11.002

Van den Broek P., Young, M., Tzeng, Y., & Linderholm, T. (1999). The landscape model of reading. In H. van Oostendorp, & S.R. Goldman (Eds.), The construction of mental representations during reading (pp.71–98). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.

Zwaan, R.A., Langston, M.C., & Graesser, A.C. (1995). The construction of situation models in narrative comprehension: An event-indexing model. Psychological Science, 6(5), 292–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00513.x
Published
2018-10-03
How to Cite
Akimova, N., & Akimova, A. (2018). Тext Understanding as a Special Kind of Understanding. PSYCHOLINGUISTICS, 24(1), 27-46. https://doi.org/10.31470/2309-1797-2018-24-1-27-46