Neuro-cognitive Underpinning of Co-morbidity between Developmental Dyslexia and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Keywords: ADHD, dyslexia, comorbidity, neuro-cognition, reading, executive functions

Abstract

Developmental Dyslexia is a specific reading and writing disability despite of normal intelligence, educational instruction and socio-cultural opportunity. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition that affects millions of children and often persists into adulthood. ADHD can include a combination of problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour. The frequent co-morbidity of dyslexia and ADHD posed the question of the issue whether common causal mechanism can be identified. There are several causal explanation of the co-morbidity between dyslexia and ADHD. Firstly, the symptoms of ADHD associated with dyslexia are a secondary consequence of reading problems (‘phenocopy’ hypothesis). However, the finding could not substantiate in later studies. Therefore, the first aim the present research is to identify the frequency and nature of co-morbidity between dyslexics and ADHD children.

Developmental Dyslexia and ADHD are some of the most complex developmental disorders that affect children population. These are some of the conditions which affect the ability of the children to benefit from education and engage with surroundings in a meaningful manner. These conditions may occur in isolation, but many times they overlap. These overlapping conditions are termed as co-morbidity, and this may reflect the greater difficulties experienced by the children with a combination of deficits. However, the underlying reasons for these and the subsequent behavioural deficits are not well understood. Thus, the second major goal of the article is to investigate neuro-cognitive underpinning of dyslexia and ADHD. Neuro-cognitive basis presented by prefrontal dorsolateral cortex dysfunction was revealed and executive functions presented by problems in phonological working memory, initiating the activity and multitasking were established.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

American Psychiatric Association (2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC. : American Psyhiatric Association.
August, G.J., & Garfi nkel, B.D. (1990). Comorbidity of ADHD and reading disability among clinic-referred children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18(1), 29–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00919454
Barkley, R.A. (2006). Attention-defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder. A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (3rd ed.). New York : The Guilford Press. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054707305334
Douglas, V.I. (1983). Attention and cognitive problems. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 280–329). New York : Guilford Press.
Gadow, K.D., & Nolan, E.E. (2002). Differences between preschool children with ODD, ADHD, and ODD+ADHD symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 191–201. PMID:11902598
Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitivedevelopmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906
Khan, A., Abdal-hay, A., Qazi, T., Calle, C.L., & Castillo, R.C. (2014). Time estimation in developmental dyslexia: An experimental investigation. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 3, 373–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojmp.2014.35039
Khan, A, Loberg, O., & Hautala, J. (2017). On the eye movement control of changing reading direction for asingle word: The case of reading numerals in urdu. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 46(5), 1273–1283. DOI: 10.1007/s10936-017-9491-1
Kulkarni, M. (2015). Attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder. Indian Journal of Paediatrics, 82(3), 267–271. doi: 10.1007/s12098-014-1556-7
Wagner, R.K., & Torgesen, J.K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192
Willcutt, E.G, Pennington, B.F, Olson, R.K, Chhabildas, N, & Hulslander, J. (2005). Neuropsychological analyses of comorbidity between reading disability and attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder: In search of the common defi cit. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27, 35–78. DOI:10.1207/s15326942dn2701_3
Zasiekina, L. (2009). Speech and Language of Children with Attention Defi cit and Hyperactivity Disorder. Bulgarian Journal of Psychology, 3–4, 393–404.
Zasiekina, L. (2012). Psycholinguistic Approach to Attention Defi cit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In G. Minini & A. Manuti (Eds.), Applied Psycholinguistics: Positive Effects and Ethical Perspectives (Vol. II) (pp. 241–251).
Zasiekina, L. (2016). Individual intelligence in the соnext of modern psycholinguistic studies. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 53(4), 68–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/10610405.2016.1251112

Abstract views: 182
PDF Downloads: 108
Published
2018-10-03
How to Cite
Zasiekina, L. (2018). Neuro-cognitive Underpinning of Co-morbidity between Developmental Dyslexia and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). PSYCHOLINGUISTICS, 24(1), 134-148. https://doi.org/10.31470/2309-1797-2018-24-1-134-148