Metacognitive Strategies of Developing the Reading Competence of Students of Institutions of Higher Education
Introduction. The paper presents the peculiarities and advantages of using the metacognitive strategies to develop the reading competence in students of pedagogical universities in the process of educational-vocational training; the notion “strategies of reading” is clarified, the basic structural components are determined; the functions of the metacognitive strategies, their role when working with scientific texts are considered. The theoretical approaches to the metacognitive strategies are represented, their functions, their role in understanding scientific texts. The notions and meanings of the metacognitive skills and metacognitive strategies are revealed. The metacognitive skills can be considered as an integration of the ability to understand scientific texts and metalinguistic erudition, i. e. as a set of knowledge about the text and ability to work with the text. The paper presents the author’s programme of forming metalinguistic strategies when working with scientific texts.
Results & Discussions. Erudition in the metastrategies is connected with the ability to understand complex verbal material of scientific character. The attention is paid to the fact that due to reflection the reader through speech experience penetrates into the essence of the text, reaches its comprehension. It is shown that metacognitive knowledge such as erudition in strategies and techniques of metacognition is connected with the ability to understand complex verbal material of scientific character. It is underlined that using actively the metacognitive strategies of management of one’s own cognitive activity, awareness of the process of implementing these strategies positively are connected with the ability to understand scientific texts and can be considered as a determinant of such an ability. It is noted that mastering the metacognitive strategies, their variability foresees knowledge and understanding of the structure of texts, their types, high ability to understand texts and variability of different metacognitive operations when working with the text material. Metalinguistic erudition, i.e. the set of knowledge of the text and the ability to work with it allows mastering different texts of vocational orientation quickly and effectively. Metalinguistic strategies as well the ability of the specialist to his/her own professional activities are positively connected with the ability to work effectively with the text material and the ability to process complex scientific texts.
Bogin, G.I. (1989). Skhema deistvii chitatelia pri ponimanii teksta [Scheme of the reader’s actions in understanding the text]. Kalinin [in Russian].
Vygotskii, L.S. (2000). Mysl i slovo. Psikhologiia [Thought and word. Psychology]. Moscow: Izd-vo EKSMO-Press [in Russian].
Zalevskaia, A.A. (2005). Psikholingvisticheskie issledovaniia. Slovo. Tekst [Psycholinguistic studies. Word. Text]. Moscow: Gnozis [in Russian].
Zimniaia, I.A. (2001). Lingvopsikhologiia rechevoi deiatelnosti [Linguopsychology of speech activity]. Voronezh: NPO “MODEK” [in Russian].
Kostiuk, G.S. (1988). Izbrannye psikhologicheskie trudy [Selected psychological works]. Kyiv: Pedagogіka [in Russian].
Krasnykh, V.V. (2001). Osnovy psikholingvistiki i teorii kommunikatcii [Fundamentals of psycholonguistics and theory of communication]. Moscow: ITDGK «Gnozis» [in Russian].
Kuznetcova, G.A. (2004). Formirovanie strategicheskoi kompetentcii v protcesse obucheniia chteniiu v litceiakh i gimnaziiakh [Forming strategic competence in the process of teaching to read in lyceums and classical schools]. Candidate’s thesis. Moscow [in Russian].
Lazareva, O.V. (2012). Formirovanie metakognitivnoi reguliatcii ponimaniia nauchnogo teksta [Forming metacognitive regulation of understanding scientific texts]. Retrieved from http://emissia.org/offline/2012/1843.htm
Leontev, A.A. (2003). Osnovy psikholingvistiki [Fundamentals of psycholinguistics]. Moscow: Smysl; SPb: Lan [in Russian].
Mikk, Ia.A. (1981). Optimizatciia slozhnosti uchebnogo teksta [Optimization of difficulty of the educational text]. Moscow: Prosveshchenie [in Rusian].
Narolina, V.I. (1982). K probleme urovnei ponimaniia [on the problem of the levels of understanding]. Voprosy psikhologii – Issues of Psychology, 6, 125–127 [in Russian].
Pirverdieva, Yu.A. (2011). Modeli ispolzovaniya infokommunikaczionnikh tekhnologij v proczesse formirovaniya kognitivnogo komponenta metalingvisticheskoj kompetenczii lingvista-prepodavatelya [Models of using the infocommunication technologies in the process of formation the linguist-teacher’s cognitive component of metalinguistic competence]. Doctor’s thesis. Stavropol [in Russian].
Rubinshtein, S.L. (2000). Osnovy obshchei psikhologii [Fundamentals of general psychology]. Sankt-Peterburg: Piter [in Russian].
Smetannikova, N.N. (2005). Strategialnyi podkhod k obucheniiu chteniiu (mezhdistciplinarnye problemy chteniia i gramotnosti) [Strategic approach to teaching to read (interdisciplinary problems of reading and literacy)]. Moscow: Shkolnaia biblioteka [in Russian].
Chepeleva, N.V. (1992). Psikhologiia chteniia uchebnoi i nauchnoi literatury v sisteme professionalnoi podgotovki studentov [Psychology of reading of educational and scientific literature in the system of professional training if students]. Doctor’s thesis. Kyiv [in Russian].
Alenizi, K., & Alanazi, M. (2016). The Effectiveness of Metacognitive Teaching Strategies to Enhance Elementary School Pupils’ Reading Skills in the Northern Border Areas of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of English Linguistics, 6(4), 213–226. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v6n4p213
Bimmel, P., & Rammpilon, U. (2000). Lernautonomie und Lernstrategien. Munchen [in German].
Carell, P.L. Gajdusek, L. & Wise, T. (1998). Metacognition and EFI/ESL reading. Instructional Science, 26, 97–112. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003092114195
Chen, A.-Y. (1992). On improving reflective thinking through teacher education. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (pp. 248–302). San Francisco.
Denton, C., Wolters, Ch., York, M., Swanson, E., Kulesz, P., & Francis, D. (2015). Adolescents’ use of reading comprehension strategies: Differences related to reading proficiency, grade level, and gender. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 81–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2014.11.016
Elvinia, A., & Ocana de Castro, M. (2017). The Use of Metacognitive Strategies to Enhance Reading Comprehension Skills. Cuadernos de Linguistica Hispanica, 29, 223–244 [in Spanish].
Ghahari, Sh., & Basanjideh, M. (2015). Dynamics of Strategies-based Language Instruction: A Study of Reading Comprehension and Problem Solving Abilities via Structural Equation Modeling. RELC Journal, 46(3), 237–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688215595713
Hacker, D.J. (1998). Metacognition: Definitions and empirical foundations. Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice, 1, 123–134.
Hartman, H.J. (2001). Metacognition in Learning and Instruction: Theory, Research, and Practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
Hosenfeld, C. (1977). A preliminary investigation of the reading strategies of successful and non-successful second language learners. System, 5(2), 110–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(77)90087-2
Leopold, C., & Leutner, D. (2015). Improving students’ science text comprehension through metacognitive self-regulation when applying learning strategies. Metacognition and Learning, 10(3), 313–346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-014-9130-2
Mijuskovic, M., & Simovic, S. (2016). The 21st Century English Language Reading Classroom in Montenegro: the Influence of Metacognitive Strategies on University Students’ Attitudes Regarding the Process of Reading in English. Porta Linguarum, 26, 23–36.
Penuela, D. (2018). Using Metacognitive Strategies to Raise Awareness of Stress and Intonation in EFL. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 20(1), 91–104. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487085.12383
Seamster, T.L., Reddіng, R.E., Cannon, J.R., Ryder, J.M., & Purcell, J.A. (1993). Cognitive task analysis of expertise in air traffic control. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 257–283. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327108ijap0304_2
Shih, Y.-Ch., Chern, Ch.-lan, & Reynolds, B. (2018). Bringing extensive reading and reading strategies into the Taiwanese junior college classroom. Reading in a Foreign Language, 30, 130–151.
Soodla, P., Jogi, A.-L., & Kikas, E. (2017). Relationships between teachers’ metacognitive knowledge and students’ metacognitive knowledge and reading achievement. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 32(2), 201–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-016-0293-x
Tsalas, N., Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2015). Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 132, 140–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.01.008
Vaughan, J. & Estes, T. (1986). Reading and Reasoning Beyond the Primary Grades. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.