Acculturating Stress, Language Anxiety and Procrastination of International Students in the Academic Settings
Objectives. The aim of the study is to examine the procrastination among international students in academic settings in Ukraine.
Materials & Methods. The 41 participants were recruited from two national universities in Volyn oblast who came from African countries to obtain higher education in Ukraine. Procrastination Scale, Acculturative Stress Scale, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale were applied in the research.
Results. Evidence consistently suggests that there are no gender differences in procrastination, acculturating stress, and language anxiety. However, a weak negative correlation between procrastination and age of the participants was found (r=-0.26 p<0.05). It is possible to hypothesise that academic procrastination is less likely to occur in mature age, being replaced by the procrastination in other life domains. The findings of multiple regression suggest that acculturative stress and language anxiety taken together predict procrastination of the international students (R2 = 0.469, F (4, 37) = 2.741, p=0.015). However, amongst other predictors only fear of negative evaluation as a separate scale of language anxiety is an independent robust predictor of procrastination. One unanticipated finding was that accultuarion is not a significant moderator of the interaction between fear of negative evaluation and procrastination. Therefore, international students’ procrastination is predicted by rather social anxiety of being evaluated than cultural settings and language anxiety per se. This inference is in line with the evidence that test anxiety and communication apprehension are not independent significant predictors of procrastination.
Conclusion. The current study showed that the main predictor of procrastination is linked to social anxiety which might be triggered by new cultural and academic settings and, therefore, transformed into procrastination. However, with a small sample size which represents only African students, caution must be applied, as the findings might not be extrapolated for the international students from other countries. Further studies, which take these limitations into account, will need to be undertaken.
Berry, J.W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.013
Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2019). Procrastination and Rational/Irrational Beliefs: A Moderated Mediation Model. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-019-00314-6
Button, K.S., Kounali, D., Stapinski, L., Rapee, R.M., Lewis, G., & Munafò, M.R. (2015). Fear of negative evaluation biases social evaluation inference: Evidence from a probabilistic learning task. PloS one, 10(4), e0119456. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119456
Beutel, M.E., Klein, E.M., Aufenanger, S., Brähler, E., Dreier, M., Müller, K.W., & Wölfling, K. (2016). Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction Across the age Range–A German Representative Community Study. PloS one, 11(2), e0148054. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148054
Gamst-Klaussen, T., Steel, P., & Svartdal, F. (2019). Procrastination and personal finances: Exploring the roles of planning and financial self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00775
Goldin, C., Katz, L.F., & Kuziemko, I. (2006). The homecoming of American college women: The reversal of the college gender gap. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(4), 133–157. https://doi.org/10.3386/w12139
Haghbin, M. (2015). Conceptualization and operationalization of delay: Development and validation of the multifaceted measure of academic procrastination and the delay questionnaire. Doctoral dissertation. Carleton University. https://doi.org/10.22215/etd/2015-11051
Hasanagic, A., & Ozsagir, C.B. (2018). The Validity Exploration of General Procrastination Scale (Lay, 1986). Epiphany, 11(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.21533/epiphany.v11i1.283
Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2018). General and Life-Domain Procrastination in Highly Educated Adults in Israel. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1173. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01173
Horwitz, E.K. (1986). Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of a foreign language anxiety scale. Tesol Quarterly, 20(3), 559–562. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586302
Horwitz, E. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual review of applied linguistics, 21, 112–126. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190501000071
Horwitz, E.K., Horwitz, M.B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern language journal, 70(2), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x
Klingsieck, K.B. (2013). Procrastination: When good things don’t come to those who wait. European Psychologist, 18(1), 24–34. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000138
Lay, C.H. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of research in personality, 20(4), 474–495. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(86)90127-3
Li, J., Wang, L., & Fisher, K.W. (2004). The organization of Chinese shame eoneepts. Cognition and Emotion, 18(6), 767–797. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930341000202
Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Saariaho, E., Inkinen, M., Haarala-Muhonen, A., Hailikari, T. (2015). Academic procrastinators, strategic delayers and something betwixt and between: An interview study. Frontline Learning Research, 3(2), 47–62. https://doi.org/10.14786/flr.v3i2.154
Lowinger, R., He, Z., Lin, M., & Chang, M. (2014). The impact of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior in Chinese international students. College Student Journal, 48(1), 141–152.
Markiewicz, K. (2018). Prokrastynacja i prokrastynatorzy. Definicja, etiologia, epidemiologia i terapia. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, 31(3), 195–213. https://doi.org/10.17951/j.2018.31.3.195-213
Reichenberger, J., Smyth, J.M., & Blechert, J. (2018). Fear of evaluation unpacked: day-to-day correlates of fear of negative and positive evaluation. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 31(2), 159–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2017.1396826
Sandhu, D.S., & Asrabadi, B.R. (1998). An acculturative stress scale for international students: A practical approach to stress management. Evaluating stress: A book of resources, 2, 1–33.
Sirois, F.M., & Pychyl, T.A. (2013). Procrastination and the Priority of Short-Term Mood Regulation: Consequences for Future Self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12011
Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. (2013). Sex, Education and Procrastination: An Epidemiological Study of Procrastinators’ Characteristics from a Global Sample. European Journal of Personality, 27(1), 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1851
Tibbett, T.P., & Ferrari, J.R. (2015). The portrait of the procrastinator: Risk factors and results of an indecisive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 82(2015), 175–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.014
Winkelman, M. (1994). Cultural shock and adaptation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73(2), 121–126. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1994.tb01723.x
Zasiekina, L. (2015). Psycholinguistic approach to diagnostics and modification of individual negative core beliefs. East European Journal of Psycholinguistics, 2(1), 151–157.
Zhou, Y., Jindal-Snape, D., Topping, K., & Todman, J. (2008). Theoretical models of culture shock and adaptation in international students in higher education. Studies in higher education, 33(1), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070701794833
Abstract views: 171 PDF Downloads: 72
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.