Model of Situation as Basis for Comparison of Lexical Semantics
The paper focuses on the model of situation concept – a representation that constitutes the basis for comparison (tertium comparationis) in contrasting the semantics of lexical items in related and non-related languages. The expediency of using the model of situation concept as the basis for comparison agrees with an assumption of universality and uniqueness of situation conceptualization. From this viewpoint, the content of a linguistic item’s semantics is viewed within the dialectics of relations between the universality of human cognition and the uniqueness of conceptualization. The model of situation concept is analyzed as a propositional function in which the arguments represent the conceptualization of a perception object, whilst the predicate – a cognitive conception of the conceptualization itself. From this perspective, the model of situation concept represents the content of a lexical item as the realization of relations between the basic participants of a given situation. The concept of situation is represented as a configuration of semantic linguistic dimensions – the characteristics of lexical items’ planes of content that encode information on a certain aspect of a situation or its fragment conceptualization. The relevance of the model being a representation of multidimensional semantic space is verified based on the results of the subjective scaling procedure. It has been ascertained that the lexical items’ semantics of contrasted languages encode and distribute information among four semantic linguistic dimensions: representational, sentential, relational, and epidigmatic. It is posited that the representational semantic dimension encodes information on cognitive values of situation participants, the sentential one – on a set and relations of situation participants, the relational one – on the degree of positional activities or salience of situation participants, the epidigmatic one – on the mechanisms and strategies of a situation concept extension. In order to ascertain the content of situation concept and to establish the ways the information is encoded and distributed in the semantics of lexical items, a directed associative experiment has been used. In reproducing the specificity of the worldview, the expediency of further psycholinguistic research of lexical semantic models in cognitive, functional, and comparative aspects is claimed.
Arutiunova, N.D. (1976). Predlozhenie i ego smysl. Logiko-semanticheskie problemy [Sentence and its sense. Logico-semantic problems]. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
Velichkovskii, B.M. (2006). Kognitivnaia nauka: osnovy psikhologii poznaniia [Cognitive science: fundamentals of psychological cognition]. Moscow: Smysl; Izdatelskii tcentr «Akademiia» [in Russian].
Iordanskaia, L.N., & Melchuk, I.A. (2007). Smysl i sochetaemost v slovare [Sense and co-occurrence in vocabulary]. Moscow: Iazyki slavianskikh kultur [in Russian].
Kibrik, A.E. (1992). Ocherki po obshchim i prikladnym voprosam iazykoznaniia (universalnoe, tipovoe i spetcificheskoe v iazyke) [Sketches on general and applied issues of linguistics (universal, typical and specific in language)]. Moscow: MGU [in Russian].
Kibrik, A.E. (2005). Konstanty i peremennye iazyka [Constants and variables of language]. Saint Petersburg: Aleteiia [in Russian].
Kravchenko, A.V. (1996). Iazyk i vospriiatie: kognitivnye aspekty iazykovoi kategorizatcii [Language and perception: cognitive aspects of language categorization]. Irkutsk: Izd-vo Irkutskogo un-ta [in Russian].
Kubriakova, E.S. (2009). O kontceptakh, skhvachennykh znakom [On the concepts grasped by a sign]. STUDIA LINGUISTICA XVIII. Aktualnye problemy sovremennogo iazykoznaniia – STUDIA LINGUISTICA XVIII. Topical issues of contemporary linguistics, (pp. 69–75). Saint Petersburg: Politekhnika-servis [in Russian].
Mustaioki, A. (2006). Teoriia funktcionalnogo sintaksisa: ot semanticheskikh struktur k iazykovym sredstvam [The theory of functional syntax: from semantic structures to language means]. Moscow: Iazyki slavianskoi kultury [in Russian].
Paducheva, E.V. (1998). Kommunikativnoe vydelenie na urovne sintaksisa i pragmatiki [Communicative emphasis on syntactic and semantic levels]. Semiotika i informatika – Semiotics and informatics, (pp. 82–107). Moscow: Iazyki russkoi kultury [in Russian].
Paducheva, E.V. (2004). Dinamicheskie modeli v semantike leksiki [Dynamic models of lexical semantics]. Moscow: Iazyki slavianskoi kultury [in Russian].
Revzin, I.I. (1962). Modeli iazyka [Models of language]. Moscow : Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR [in Russian].
Croft, W. (2001). Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001
Dowty, D. (2001). The semantic asymmetry of ‘argument alternation’ (and why it matters). Making sense: From lexeme to discourse, 44, 171-186). Groningen: Center for Language and Cognition.
Falk, Y.N. (2001). Lexical-functional grammar: An introduction to parallel constraint-based syntax. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information.
Fillmore, Ch.J. (1977). The case for case reopened. Syntax and Semantics, 8, 59–81.
Abstract views: 245 PDF Downloads: 243
Copyright (c) 2018 Psycholinguistics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.