Psychological and Linguistic Peculiarities of English Mastering by the Children of Young School Age in the Process of Associative Symbols Usage
Objective. The psychological features of the associative symbol method in the study of children who learn foreign languages are considered in the article.
Research methods: theoretical (analysis, systematization, generalization of modern literature); empirical (experimental work using the ASM); statistical (methods of quantitative and qualitative processing of the obtained research results, statistical calculation according to the Pearson homogeneity criterion).
Results. The authors have examined the essence of the «association» concept in modern psychology and psychophysiological mechanisms of creating of associative relationships in the human mind. It was discovered that associative zones directly affect the process of remembering of very complex information, especially in elementary school pupils. Taking into account associations by type of formation (similarity, contrast, contiguity in space and time, cause and effect), it is found that associative relations and parallels arise on the basis of agreement of some similarity and compatibility of elements, or their opposites. Associations that reflect the ancestral and cause-and-effect relationships between objects of the environment are more meaningful than others. The study takes into account a set of conditions that cause the emergence of verbal associations, because they are based on personal, subjective, cultural experience of a person and involves the connection between individual neuro-psychic acts, thoughts, ideas, feelings of personality. It is proven that elementary school pupils learn foreign words much faster if the words are related with a particular image or association, which conforms to the associative symbol method, which is one of the most effective ways to semantise lexical units. Based on the fundamental characteristics of the ASM, it is determined that this method involves combinations of language, gestures, facial expressions, body language, language code ideas and associations.
Conclusions. It is proved that the use of the associative symbol method in learning of a foreign language allows younger students to perceive language material with the help of all analyzers: visual, auditory, speech and motor ones. The process of new words and expressions learning with this method turns into fun and play. An important aspect and advantage of using the associative symbol method is lesser amount of tirelessness of elementary school pupils, which allows to effectively implement language learning through their personal activity. The effectiveness of ASM implementation in the practice of educational activity of Lutsk schools is proved by the method of mathematical statistics (χ2 criterion)
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