Trauma, Rememory and Language in Holodomor Survivors’ Narratives
The objective of the research is to examine language use in Holodomor survivors ‘narratives as psycholinguistic markers of mental trauma and PTSD. The specific objective is to explore rememory as a cognitive strategy of releasing suppressed traumatic events.
Materials & Methods. 42 survivors of the Holodomor of 1932–1933 in Ukraine were recruited for producing a traumatic narrative. The inclusion criterion for participants was their personal history of being Holodomor survivors. Holodomor survivor is defined as a person who was exposed to the genocide and unprecedented starvation in 1932–1933. The study took place in 2003–2005, average age of participants is 84.5, SD = 4.8, 29 females and 13 males. The study applies LIWC (Linguistic Inventory Word Count) to analyze the traumatic narratives and captures linguistic units and the psychological meaningful categories. The study applies the exploratory design utilizing the independent variables of categories of time, I and cognitive processes and dependent variable of word count in a traumatic narrative for multiple regression analysis, SPSS. 26. Results. The main issue that emerges from the findings is that categories of I, time, and cognitive processes taken together contribute to word count. However, only categories of time (positive predictor) and cognitive processes (negative predictor) are independent significant predictors of word count. Therefore, we can assume that a poor reappraisal of traumatic events and overestimation of time in the rememory of traumatic narratives indicate PTSD symptoms in Holodomor survivors.
Conclusions. Rememory as a cognitive strategy has a positive impact on developing collective identity and filling gaps in the Ukrainian history, however, it does not affect the therapeutic effect in treating PTSD.
Adenauer, H., Catani, C., Gola, H., Keil, J., Ruf, M., Schauer, M., & Neuner, F. (2011). Narrative exposure therapy for PTSD increases top-down processing of aversive stimuli-evidence from a randomized controlled treatment trial. BMC Neuroscience, 12(1), 127. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-12-127
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). American Journal of Psychiatry (p. 991). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.744053
Berntsen, D., Rubin, D.C., & Siegler, I.C. (2011). Two versions of life: Emotionally negative and positive life events have different roles in the organization of life story and identity. Emotion, 11(15), 1190–1201. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024940
Bezo, B., & Maggi, S. (2015). Living in “survival mode”: Intergenerational transmission of trauma from the Holodomor genocide of 1932–1933 in Ukraine. Social Science & Medicine, 134, 87–94. https://doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.009
Brom, D., Kfir, R., & Dasberg, H. (2001). A controlled double-blind study on children of Holocaust survivors. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 38(1), 47–57.
Chemtob, C.M., Novaco, R.W., Hamada, R.S., & Gross, D.M. (1997). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for severe anger in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 184–189. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.65.1.184
Conway, M.A. (2005). Memory and the self. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 594–628. https://doi: 10.13140/rg.2.1.1434.8647
Colman, A.M. (2003). A Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hunt, N.C. (2010). Memory, war and trauma. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511845017
Kira, I.A., Lewandowski, L., Templin, T., Ramaswamy, V., Ozkan, B., & Mohanesh, J. (2008). Measuring cumulative trauma dose, types, and profiles using a development-based taxonomy of traumas. Traumatology, 14(2), 62–87. https://doi/10.1177/1534765608319324
Konanur, S., Muller, R.T., Cinamon, J.S., Thornback, K., & Zorzella, K.P.M. (2015). Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in a community-based program. Child Abuse and Neglect, 50, 159–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.07.013
Kulchytskyi, S., Olynyk, M.D., & Wynnyckyj, A. (2008). The Holodomor and Its Consequences in the Ukrainian Countryside. Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 30(1/4), 1–13.
Lorenzzoni, P.L., Silva, G.L.T., Poletto, M.P., & Kristensen, Ch.H. (2014) Autobiographical memory for stressful events, traumatic memory and posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. Avances en Psihologia Lationoamericana, 32(3), 361–376. https://doi.org/10.12804/apl32.03.2014.08
Meichenbaum, D. (1994). A Clinical Handbook for Assessing and Treating Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Waterloo: Institute Press.
Nikro, N.S. (2019). Milieus of Rememory: Relationalities of Violence, Trauma, and Voice. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Pennebaker, J.W. (1993). Putting stress into words: Health, Linguistic and therapeutic implications. Behavioral Research Therapy, 31, 539–548. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/0005-7967(93)90105-4
Purkayastha, M. (2014). Rememory as a Strategy of Subversive Representation: A Feminist Reading of Toni Morrison’s Beloved. URL: https://www.academia.edu/2542694/REMEMORY_AS_A_STRATEGY_OF_SUBVERSIVE_REPRESENTATION_A_FEMINIST_READING_OF_MORRISON_S_BELOVED
Rassmusen, A.S., Ramsgaard, S.B., & Berntsen, D. (2015). Frequency and Functions of Involuntary and Voluntary Autobiographical Memories Across the Day. Psychology of Conciseness: Theory, Research and Practice, 2(2), 185–205. https://doi.org/10.1037/cns0000042
Tausczik, Y.R., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2010). The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29(1), 24–54. https://doi:10.1177/0261927x09351676
White, M., White, M.K., Wijaya, M., & Epston, D. (1990). Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends. WW Norton & Company.
Zasiekin, S., Bezuglova, N., Hapon, A., Matiushenko V., Podolska O., & Zubchuk, D. (2018). Psycholinguistic aspects of translating LIWC dictionary. East European Journal of Psycholinguistics, 5(1), 121–131. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.143633
Zasiekina, L., Kennison Sh., Zasiekin S., & Khvorost K. (2019). Psycholinguistic Markers of Autobiographical and Traumatic Memory. East European Journal of Psycholinguistics, 6(2), 119–133. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3637548
Abstract views: 60 PDF Downloads: 19
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.