Formation of Dialogic Interactions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Introduction. In the course of the presented research, the aim was to identify a group of factors that determine the so-called “inability to dialogue” in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and to analyze possible ways of forming dialogic interactions in them.
Methods. The methods of analysis, systematization, generalization and theoretical triangulation of scientific data have been applied.
Results. As a result of the analysis, problems caused by socio-pragmatic situations were attributed to: difficulties in switching the communicative role of “the speaker” to “the listener”; the lack of positive feedback; alienation from the environment; weakness of communication initiation; monologic manipulability, in which the need to produce a statement is not objectified in the motive and is not realized in the purpose of the statement. Problems associated with psycholinguistic pragmatics include: disturbance of rhythmic-temporal synchronized communication; ignoring partner’s speech behavior; linguistic aspects of expression (content and construction of verbal reactions), extralinguistic aspects of expression (gestures, nuances, intonations, emotions); disturbance of the structure of the image and its “sensual tissue”; inability to provide thematic focus of the message; difficulties in forming “verbal networks”; deficiency of socio-pragmatic conclusions (misunderstanding of hidden meanings). The Program of Dialogical Interaction Formation in Children with ASD is proposed as a system of psycho-corrective measures, concluded in accordance with the principles of social orientation, nature compliance and in partnership with the RAS-affected child’s family. The program activates mechanisms of reflection, adaptive response and imitation in children with autism (the participants of the dialogue). The content of the components of the Program is structured according to the state of functional limitations of the communication and speech sphere of children with autism, the methods used and the expected results.
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