PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2018-12-17T07:13:55+02:00 Nataliia Kharchenko Open Journal Systems Psycholinguistics Journal publishes refereed articles dealing with psychological, anthropological, linguistic, social communication and psychodidactic aspects of psycholinguistics The Physical Discourse of Fan Fiction 2018-12-17T07:13:55+02:00 Hodunok Zoriana <p>The research of physical discourse, typical characters, stereotypical gender roles of fan fiction’s texts, based on “Harry Potter”, “Supernatural”, “The Song of Ice and Fire”/“The Game of Throne”, is realized in the article. The author uses Psycholinguistics (Frame Method and Free Associative Experiment), Hermeneutics, some elements of Comparative analysis to describe the main characteristics of the personages and explain peculiarities of their sexual interactions.</p> <p>Fan fiction prose is a kind of virtual mass literature, so it has special features inherent to mass literature in general, for example, comfort reading, typical personages in typical dramatic plot, often – happy end etc.</p> <p>The physical discourse is the most important part of fan fiction’s texts, because the experience of sexual interactions is desirable for a person and it is a base of human’s life. The frame “body” covers not only sex, but also love and security (for example, to be safe in one’s hands). The most frequent nouns of the frame are “hands/fingers” and “eyes/ gaze”. It is important to note that man’s hands and eyes often show his character. But woman’s eyes and hands realize her emotions and feelings. It depends on stereotypical gender roles of mass culture: man has a function to interact with the world, and woman has a function to safe life inside (to give birth), which is confirmed by the free associative experiment.</p> <p>Physical damages (scars, injuries, deceases – for man; rapes – for woman) make the personages more emotionally close to a reader of fan fiction; show an act of initiation (transition from the fandom text to fan fiction text).</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Persuasiveness in Political Discourse on Twitter 2018-12-17T07:13:54+02:00 Olena Goroshko Tetiana Poliakova <p>The article focuses on the question of new communication form appearance – the internet communication, namely political internet communication, that furthermore influenced the appearance of the new genres, among which we can find twitting. The active twitting usage with the communicative aim in political sphere puts the question about language learning namely about the means of expression of the persuasive language influence in the analyzed genre, as the persuasive language influence function is one of the most important functions in political internet-communication from psycholinguistic point of view.</p> <p>The research process found out the range of verbal expression meanings of explicit and implicit persuasiveness. To the verbal meanings of implicit persuasiveness, we can refer the usage of imperatives and imperative constructions, explicit performatives, constructions with modal verbs, short sentences, and slogans.</p> <p>The verbal meanings of implicit persuasiveness include rhetorical questions, affirmative sentences, and famous people’s citations. To the special language meanings, which encourage the influence on the addressee we also refer the usage of elliptical sentences, parcelation, repetition. The mostly used lexical and stylistic meanings, that encourage the fulfillment of the main purposes of political discourse is the usage of metaphor, metonymy, irony, personification and oxymoron. The research allowed us to come to conclusion, that the English-speaking political internet-communication is characterized with the usage of the same verbal appellation meanings as traditional communication. But we can also outline the meanings peculiar only to the internet communication and especially the twitting genre. For the research methodology we took out modern scientific conceptions. The research methodology was developed according the framework of genre study, psycholinguistics, 2.0, virtual genre study. According to the aim and tasks, general and linguistic research methods were used.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sound-Color and Phono-Semantic Analysis of Literary Poetic Text by Synesthets 2018-12-17T07:13:53+02:00 Мariya Elivanova <p>The article is concerned with investigating the problem of synesthesia that manifests itself in the fact that stimulation in one sensory-based system or cognitive system that leads to automatic reaction in another one.</p> <p>This article is the continuation of the research published in the previous one (Еливанова, Семушина, 2017) in which we described statistically significant sound&nbsp;/&nbsp;alphabet letters-color and words-color correlations typical for synesthets. Тhe aim of the next stage was to research synesthets’ capability of sound-color and phono-semantic analysis of a poetic text. Phonosemantics is a Russian branch of linguistic, its subject matter is sounds that create images.</p> <p>12 synesthets took part in the research at the first stage. We offered them to analyze a piece of poetry “Grasshopper” by V.&nbsp;Hlebnikov (В.&nbsp;Хлебников). We revealed that synesthets have different capabilities of sound-color analysis of a literary poetic text that manifest individual and typological specifics of sound-color capability. 2 (16.7%) of examined respondents who have artistic type of higher nervous function with its high potential color-sound language system are good at intuitive phono-semantic analysis of a poetic text.</p> <p>Then we offered 3 curated synesthets extracts of poetry by А.&nbsp;Блок, А.&nbsp;Белый and Edgar Allan Poe (in original and in the translation by 3 different Russian poets).</p> <p>Analysis showed that individual method of synesthets partly coincides with the method of automatical analysis that is based on letter occurrence frequency in a text. Synesthets do not necessarily feel colors of frequent letters / sounds that have not equal meaning for the color perception of words and the text as a whole.&nbsp;</p> <p>Synesthesia specifics combined with emotional image reflection of color-sound of analyzed texts let synesthets intuitively decode motivation coded with the help of phonetic means of language in the text by the authors of poems.</p> <p>In spite of individual variability of synesthetic perception of a text there is phono-semantic general invariability that is caused by imaginative comprehension of sound-color of poetic texts.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Approaches to Translation in the Context of Theory of Speech Activity 2018-12-17T07:13:53+02:00 Serhii Zasiekin <p>Over the past decades there has been a significant increase in the studies exploring cognitive foundations of translation reflected in a considerable amount of literature published on the topic. However, it is important to bear in mind that many of the ideas in the cognitive literature are mainly rooted in the psycholinguistic approaches to translation. For instance, a lot of scholarly works on translation in the former Soviet Union published in 1960-1970s emphasise the role of translator’s thinking and speech processes. The emergence of ‘theory of speech activity’, Soviet version of Western psycholinguistics, stimulated interest of linguists and psychologists who considered translation and interpreting, their procedural aspects worthy of scholarly attention. A. Leontyev (1969), one of the founders of the above mentioned ‘theory’, paid special attention to translator’s mental operations and probabilistic programming of the target language utterance(s). Thus far, a number of recent cognitive translation studies have confirmed the effectiveness of previous psycholinguistic models of translation designed within the framework of theory of speech activity. The goal of the study is a theoretical review of psycholinguistic approaches to interpreting and translation discussed in the works of scholars who were part of the Soviet theory of speech activity. The main objective is to reveal the translator’s status, his/her thinking and speech operations as psycholinguistic units in the approaches under review. Together, the psycholinguistic studies reviewed in the paper support the notion that the translator relies both on his/her algorithmic actions and heuristic solutions with the latter based on his/her background guided by probability thinking mechanism. This integrated approach proves useful in expanding our better and deeper understanding of translator’s activity.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Image of Region in Ordinary Language Consciousness of its Residents (on an Example of an Image of Kuzbass) 2018-12-17T07:13:52+02:00 Olga Kondratyevа Tatyana Frolovа <p>The article solves a topical problem, i.e. it develops the idea about the relevance of the psycholinguistic techniques’ usage in the image-building and branding of the regions. In particular it develops the thesis that an initial point of the region successful image’s formation is the studying of its image existing in the ordinary language consciousness of its residents and then and in the consciousness of other regions’ residents.</p> <p>Such psycholinguistic researches will give an opportunity to define strong and weak points of the regions in the consciousness of a mass audience. In other words they will let reveal and neutralize risk factors which can negatively affect the region’s image and define characteristics which will become a basis for successful region’s self-presentation.</p> <p>In order to demonstrate the efficiency of psycholinguistic techniques’ application in the studying of the territory’s representation the image of Kuzbass is described. Kuzbass is one of the strategically significant regions of Russia. In the course of the research an experimental psycholinguistic technique was used, including three complementary procedures: 1) а method of subjective definitions; 2) the directed associative experiment; 3) a method of non-complete sentences.</p> <p>The analysis has shown that the kernel of Kuzbass’s image is formed by three semantic groups: «Homeland», «Territory» and «Coal». The named groups are reflected both in the knowledge about the region and in the differently ranked concepts and evaluations which proves their fundamental character. It is also necessary to note that positive evaluations prevail which shows that the doubtless positive attitude of the residents to native region dominates.</p> <p>The developed coal industry and the positive personal attitude to the region can become meaningful points for an effective Kuzbass brand development. Nevertheless, negative issues are also reflected in the reactions, such as problems in social and recreational areas which should be paid attention to while working on the positive image of Kuzbass.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prefixal Innovations as a Mean of Psychological Impact on Consciousness Ofrecipient 2018-12-17T07:13:51+02:00 Nataliia Kostusiak Oleksandr Mezhov <p>The article characterizes structural and derivation features of innovations, which have enriched language system during the beg inning of the XXI century and are presented in Ukrainian media text. It is emphasized on the importance of interaction between external factors and language dynamic, the advantage of studying of prefixal innovations, taking into account the text environment, functional-stylistic, and psycholinguistic specifications was grounded. It was mentioned, that most of the innovations have negative emotional-expressive evaluation. They include derivatives with prefixal morphemes псевдо-, квазі-, лже-, it was indicated the part-language accessory of these lexemes, their thematic grouping was proposed. It was found out the using conditions and manipulating potential of language units with prefix недо-. It was also analyzed emotional-expressive coloration and pragmatic direction of innovations with formant пост-. Used in the press, prefixal morphemes анти-, гіпер- are consider edas components with double function, since they can mark both negative and positive features due to the con text. Functional-psycholinguistic analysis has caused the differentiation of small group of lexemes with prefixes де-, контр-, which also have evaluating connotations, however un like mention edabove un its, are greatly specialized on explication of positive emotional-evaluating influence on the recipient. Different writing of analyzed innovations has caused the abusing of problem of their standardized forming.&nbsp; In that case a specific dichotomy appears: from one side used in publicism words of mentioned sample shall comply with current norms of “Ukrainian orthography”, and from another – lexemes, formed with some orthographic faults, partly exacerbate the psychological impact on the recipient.</p> <p>It was madea conclusion, that in modern Ukrainian media-publicism, derivates, created with the help of prefixes, form one of the biggest group of secondary nominations, which, helping to reveal the main idea of the report, in the same time give it the emotional-expressive evaluation.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gender and Speech Dısfluency Productıon: a Psycholınguıstıc Analysıs on Turkısh Speakers 2018-12-17T07:13:50+02:00 Ayşe Altıparmak Gülmira Kuruoğlu <p>The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of gender on fluent Turkish native speakers' speech disfluency production rates. Totally 84 participants from four different age groups (4-8, 18-27, 33-50 and over 50) took part in the study. Gender distribution was equal in each group. In a corpus of face to face interviews, the prepared and impromptu speech samples of at least 300 words from each participant were analyzed. As a result, in the prepared speech situation 18-23-year-old males produced more prolongations than females, and 33-50-year-old males produced more prolongations, false starts and slips of the tongue (SOT) than females in the same age group. In impromptu speech situation, 18-23-year-old males produced more hesitations, prolongations, false starts and slips of the tongue than females, and 33-50-year-old males produced more prolongations and false starts than females in the same age group. Further analyses pointed out various findings related to the position of disfluencies in an utterance and the linguistic units involved in disfluency production.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psycholinguistic Peculierities of the Assimilation of Angloamericanisms by the Speakers of Ukrainian-English Bilingualism 2018-12-17T07:13:50+02:00 Tetyana Leleka Olena Moskalenko <p>The article deals with the problem of psycholinguistic peculiarities of the use of the American-English loans. The main task of the research is to educe the features of their assimilation by the students in the conditions of educational bilingualism. The knowledge of a foreign language can affect the perception of the loans and can distort their understanding.</p> <p>Speaking about the angloamericanisms, we mean, first of all, the lexical loans, transferring of words from one language into other with adaptation in the system of the language-recipient. An angloamericanism – an absolute language universal, presented by the class of the adopted lexical units that is fixed in the dictionaries of the Ukrainian language, and assimilated in its system.</p> <p>As an examinee the students of foreign languages and flight operations faculties were involved, as the example of the carriers of artificial bilingualism. The psycholinguistic and associative experiments are used. It contains such procedures: preselection of the newest loans, and also producing to the participants of the experiment of the list of the tasks, including the description of associations.</p> <p>Initial position of our experimental research is a hypothesis that the mastered enough word in an individual lexicon, firstly, is perceived as acquainted, secondly, easily enters into associative connections with other words, thirdly, does not cause large difficulties in description of its semantics.</p> <p>An experimental list consists of twenty-three words related to the most frequent thematic subsystems in the adopting language: business, economy, entertainments, sport and fashion.</p> <p>Free associative experiment provides the material for building associative fields of certain concepts, reconstruction of fragments of language and conceptual pictures of the world.</p> <p>The students had to define if the words acquainted or unknown; to write down an associative reaction; to explain the value of the word; to write down a sentence with the loan.</p> <p>The comparable analysis of results of questioning of the informants showed that the assimilation of the loans is high enough. However, the students showed large creativity in determination of semantics and in presentation of associative reactions on the loans, which testify to aspiration to show their linguistic abilities.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Health VS. Disease in the Context of Verbalization of the Axiological Picture of the World of a Modern Doctor 2018-12-17T07:13:49+02:00 Tetyana Leshchenko Maryna Zhovnir <p>The article is devoted to the problem of linguistic interpretation of values and anti-values. The relevance of their differention and the functioning of dichotomy value – anti-value is pointed out.</p> <p>It is defined that values are a complex of vital material and spiritual, non-material concepts that outline the basic behavioral dominant of a person, provide their main interests and essential needs. At the same time, anti-values are defined as the opposition (meaning) to values as universal category of the general human axiological paradigm.</p> <p>Considering the value aspects of medical communication, presently great attention is paid to the importance of studying doctor’s axiological continuum. In this work health and disease were defined as the principal semantic oppositions. According to the results of analysis, these contrast notions are central to the axiological picture of the modern doctor, and these concepts belong to different parts of the coordinate system – value – antivalence. The author substantiates the opinion that the value for the doctor means the specific notion directed him to be an competent expert in the medical field, an essential attribute of consciousness that determines main vectors of his professional activity.</p> <p>The study of the discourse-textual material made it possible to determine the language reflexes of these values. The paper presents features of the language objectification of opposing axiological landmarks – health and disease. It is indicated that all analyzed verbal objectivists reflect a modification of the health paradigm. In addition, the pragmatic potential of tokens is noted, which verbalize the value component of medical communication. The positive and negative connotations recorded in the discourse express the approval, affability, reproach or critical attitude of the doctor to the patients.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Syntactic Rhythm of Political Speeches as a Psycholinguistic Tool of Suggestive Influence 2018-12-17T07:13:48+02:00 Alla Martynyuk Alina Ponikaryova <p>This paper addresses the problem of linguistic means of suggestive influence. Suggestive influence is viewed as engrafting into the individuals’ psychic certain ideas, feelings, emotions, or other psychophysiological states bypassing their critical rational thinking. It is stated that suggestion works at the level of structure, specifically, at the level of syntactic arrangement of speech, creating persistent rhythmic-syntactic patterns that grow familiar and build anticipation switching off rationality, and making comprehension subconscious. The study is based on the structural and cognitive analysis of the syntax of Obama’s and Cameron’s political speeches. The cognitive analysis employs the instruments provided by L.&nbsp;Talmy’s FIGURE-GROUND construal. The analysis reveals that the syntax of the analysed political speeches is based on the three structural-semantic patterns of arranging predications: the structural-semantic incorporation, the semantic incorporation and the chain attachment. The structural-semantic incorporation and the chain attachment are underpinned by the linear cognitive scheme of changing the listeners’ focus of attention. The linear scheme is natural for the development of discourse. It sets the prevailing rhythmic-syntactic pattern of a political speech. Since this pattern is predictable, it serves to automatize perception and weaken rational evaluation of the speech content. The semantic incorporation is underpinned by the non-linear cognitive scheme of changing the listeners’ focus of attention. This scheme goes contrary to the natural development of discourse. It breaks the prevailing rhythmic-syntactic pattern and makes the listeners concentrate on what is being said. The change of patterns ensures the listeners’ interest to the speech.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ukrainian National Dumas: National Perceptions in the Process of Intercultural Communication 2018-12-17T07:13:47+02:00 Maryna Nabok <p>The article presents the results of empirical research on ethnopsychological groups of people living in different regions of Ukraine in the context of intercultural ideological systems. In particular, residents of Ukraine and foreign students from Africa and Middle East, which study at Sumy State University, were invited to share their impressions from the listened dumas, performed by Canadian bandurist <em>Victor</em> Mishalow during his concert tour in Ukraine. They also watched and listened to video recordings of such folk dumas as «Cossack Golota», «Marusya Boguslavka» performed by kobzar Mykola Budnyk and bandura player Fedir Zharko. Students analyzed the characters’ images, expressed their understanding and attitude to characters’ actions and compared them with the national heroes of their own countries.</p> <p>The national peculiarities of the worldview of Ukrainians, representatives of Africa and the Middle East expressed in their language are defined. The language itself is the core of people’s psyche, way of thinking, and identity of ethnic group’s moral and ethical norms of life. The analysis of folk art helps to emphasize the peculiarity of foreign students’ perception of words, rhythm, music, and the symbolic system of folk poetic works. Author notes that the psychological of figurative system of Ukrainian dumas and folk songs of the mentioned peoples has a purely national color: it is a category of national outlook and at the same time is a artistic and aesthetic category.</p> <p>The solution of these problems forms an understanding of the specific of national characters and the national world in folk poetic works of the peoples of Africa, the Middle East and Ukrainian folk dumas, which is the main purpose of the study and its novelty, because such typological comparisons are investigated for the first time.</p> <p>These experimental studies, the development of the ideas of dumas studies and studies on a national character, the peculiarities of a national world perception, world outlook and world expression <em>have </em><em>substantiated the need</em> for a deeper study of Ukrainian dumas’ role in the formation of the national personality during intercultural communication.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lex actualization on describing of military acts, processes and states 2018-12-17T07:13:47+02:00 Maryna Navalna Yuliia Kaluzhynska <p>The article describes the most commonly used lexemes from the texts of contemporary Ukrainian periodicals, reveals new lexicalunits, expands thes copeof the operation oflexemasonmilitarytopicsinthemediamaterialsofsocio-political, military an do the rissues; thefunctional-stylistic role of military vocabulary in the language of the pressis determine dandemphasizedon a negative evaluation injournalistic materials.</p> <p>In the article for the study of military vocabulary in the language of Ukrainian periodicalsat the beginningof the XXI century observation and descriptivemethods are used. At different stagesof the study, the methodoffunctionalanalysis was used to determine the stylisticloadoflexicalunits.</p> <p>Itisconcludedthatdueto a numberofextra-linguistic factors of socio-politicalorientation, the modern Ukrainian language was enriched with new tokens of militaryactions, processesandstates, whichis reflectedin the pages ofthen ational pressof the seconddecade of the XXI century. Inparticular: thelevelofdevelopment of science and technology in the language environment, socio-politicalcondition sin the linguistic society, thestate language (terminology) policyinsociety, the functional statusof the state language, the international status of the national language.</p> <p>The military vocabulary is singled out into two groups: 1) the one that names persons; 2) the one that characterizes processes, actions and states. According to our observations, the most significant manifestations are lexemes of foreign origin for the nomination of persons. Quite often, military vocabulary has a negative coloring, contrasts with the neutral vocabulary and attracts the attention of the reader.</p> <p>The military vocabulary is still a little explored layer of lexicology and requires a thorough study, in particular, the question of replenishment of thematic groups, word-building potential of lexemes, etc.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Cognitive Approach to Teaching Students English Terminological Lexis of the Subject Field of “Microeconomics” 2018-12-17T07:13:46+02:00 Liudmyla Naumenko Оksana Оliynyk <p>The paper is devoted to study of prerequisites of applying cognitive approach to teaching English terminological lexis of the subject field of “microeconomics” of students of non-special higher educational establishments. Such notions as “cognition”, “memory”, “attention”, “thinking”, “intelligence” that provide student’s mental activity in the process of studying have been considered. The system of cognitive exercises on learning English economic terminology that contains seven types, i.e.: exercises on choice of proper lexical information, grouping, guesswork from the context, logic thinking, formulating scientific definitions, language game, associative thinking, problem-solving, and is based on logic operations of comparison, identification, division / disjuncture, integration / conjuncture, analysis and synthesis, deduction, abstraction, generalization, classification, typology, categorization, conceptualization, formulation of notions and judgements. The exercises have been chosen according to thematic principle (the topic “Marketing’ from the author’s manual ‘Business English Course’) and include the following kinds: identifying a key word, identifying an odd word, multiple choice, finding out a particular name, grouping the words according to their semantic combinability, guesswork from the context, formulation of definitions, solving the crossword, filling in the radial diagram of the mental map by language reactions-associations to the word ‘marketing’, problem-solving of the real-like situation dealing with marketing activity in small groups and proposing a business solution. The selected exercises develop heuristic capabilities, analytic skills, logics of thinking and creative imagination of students, facilitate memorizing, strengthen attention, intensify subject and foreign languages knowledge, help to acquire new knowledge, structure information in verbal and visual forms, motivate research activity.&nbsp;</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mixing and switching of speech codes of Ukrainian emigration (on the example of memoirs and epistolary works by Ulas Samchuk) 2018-12-17T07:13:45+02:00 Mariia Panhelova <p>The problem of switching and mixing codes is extremely relevant in foreign and domestic linguistic science over the past decades. In this case, if code-switching is understood by all researchers more or less equally (switching from one language to another within a single text – dialog or monologue), then by mixing the code (code-mixing), the case looks much more complicated. The term «mixing of codes» is understood by different researchers in fundamentally different ways: from the introduction into one language of the elements of another language in almost unlimited quantities and in the unadapted (phonetically and grammatically) form before switching codes within the same sentence, that is, the kind of switching codes (the second approach thus postulates the process of speaking in two languages and removes the fundamental difference between switching codes and mixing codes).</p> <p>The study of the mixing of speech codes is an interesting and promising branch of research on the theory of language contacts. Among the fundamental works on this subject should be the study of P. Muysken (Muysken, 2000), where he provides a detailed typology of situations of mixing language codes. In linguistic research, there is a widespread practice of using «mixing codes» and «switching codes» as interchangeable, as well as a series of studies where the term «mixing codes» is used to describe and switch codes and massive borrowings. While the term «switching codes» emphasizes the transition of bilingual from one grammatical system to another, the term «mixing codes» implies the presence of hybrid forms associated with both grammars. In other words, mixing codes emphasizes the formal aspects of linguistic structures or linguistic competence, while code switching emphasizes linguistic performance.</p> <p>The psycho-linguistic direction concerning the study of the switching of speech codes among the bilingual environment explains which aspects of the linguistic competence of bilinguals allow them to modify the codes. Often, the choice of a foreign language involves a waiver of the synonymous form in the language of the successor of the language, thus opposed to an alternative way of expressing communicative intentions in a foreign language.</p> <p>The purpose of our scientific studio is to present function the mixing and switching codes on the materials of the memoirs («Planet DP») and the epistolary works of Ukrainian writers-emigrants in Canada, in particular, by Ulas O.&nbsp;Samchuk with his colleagues, publishers, etc. The main methods of research used were: the method of comparative analysis, which allows to detect English-language infusions as units of English, which determine the national-cultural specificity of the English language; the method of component analysis, which allowed to reveal the semantic interrelations of British realities; descriptive method and method of content analysis. In the course of the study, we came to the conclusion that the addressee and addressees, real masters of the artistic word, almost do not allow the English language to be spoken in Ukrainian, or such spraying is deliberately used and is a means of language play.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Media Phraseology and the Dynamics of the Ukrainian Language: The Psycholinguistic and Stylistic Paradoxes 2018-12-17T07:13:45+02:00 Dmytro Syzonov <p>The present article involves the study of the dynamic processes of the Ukrainian language in printed and electronic mass media. Specifically, the description of functional paradoxes in the Ukrainian language is further presented in this article, with a particular focus on phraseological units (idioms) that function in mass communication. The sources of new phraseology that percolate into mass consciousness direct it through mass media and all described manipulative strategies show that the journalists like to use phraseological units and their stylistic transformations in media texts from the headline to the conclusion. The author gives scientific interpretation of the term medial phraseological unit (idiom) and its correlation with the term new phraseological unit&nbsp;/&nbsp;phraseological innovation in Ukrainian and European Linguistics. The author gives scientific interpretation of the term medial phraseological unit (idiom) and its correlation with the term new phraseological unit&nbsp;/&nbsp;phraseological innovation in Ukrainian and European Linguistics. The research and analyzes results collected as material for innovative dictionary of new words and phraseological units (2016-2018) showed, that Ukrainian language integrates itself into the world global process, enriches itself with new lexemes thanks to the English Language, has great psycholinguistic influence from the side of active political processes and connected with the innovations development. The results of the data analysis indicate that the ratio of the new idioms to the new vocabulary in the media in Ukrainian points to the pragmatic specificity of the phraseological resources of the Ukrainian language in the twenty-first century. Comparing the corpus media phraseology in 2016 and 2017, it can be concluded that aphoristic quotations of politicians occupy a substantial place among the new phraseologisms (30% and 32% respectively), advertising slogans, including political ones (25% and 23%), calqued phraseologisms (mainly from the English language) (12% and 9%), new clichés and stamps (8% and 9%), terminological neologisms (10% and 12%), and semantically transformed phraseologisms (15%).</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Semantic Structure of Concept «Macht» in German Cultural Studies: Psycholinguistic Aspect 2018-12-17T07:13:44+02:00 Olesia Skliarenko <p>The article reveals some peculiarities of semantic structure of concept «MACHT» functioning in German cultural studies. The analyses of lexicographic objectification of the name of the concept «MACHT» has been done, which points to some peculiarities chain in conceptual way of thinking of the studied mental unit in German cultural studies. The given facts let us suggest, that the model of composites forming with derivative element– macht are productive for German lingual environment and point to their semantic actuality and high recurrence of the given mental unit in conceptual world picture. Lexical and semantic connections of concept verbalizator «MACHT» of the lexem «Macht», which were analyzed in the proposed article point to the polisemantic structure of the actual word. Collocational analyses has shown, that semantic peculiarities of function of concept «MACHT» are actually in the word, which is its name - «Macht» and are mostly used in connection with attributes and predicates. The collocation quantity with the lexemes proves that there are some actual language collocations, where the analyzed lexeme is used in communicative area. It was established, that among the main verbalizators of the concept «MACHT» phraseological units are rather wide spread. These phraseological units objectivize all maim concept slots, such as «Action», «Object of Power» and «Subject of Power». Besides we have come to conclusion that research of individual word meaning taking into consideration some association words gives the possibility not only to establish the fact of word meaning change but also to analyze the change of individual world picture of German speaking society and give some predictions about negative changes on German political stage.</p> <p>As a conclusion we may say, that the proposed study establishes, that through semantic, paradigmatic, syntagmatic and phraseological collocations of the concept lexeme «Macht» the whole chain of cognitive characteristics of the mental unit may be actualized. They point to the fact, that these mental units are relevant in German world picture and in the same way of the complete German nation.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Axiological Features of the Concept CHARM / CHARIVNIST in the English and Ukrainian Languages (Contrastive Aspect) 2018-12-17T07:13:43+02:00 Yuliia Tomchakovska <p>The article is devoted to the study of the linguo-cultural concept CHARM / CHARIVNIST in the English and Ukrainian languages. The aim of the work is to identify axiological characteristics of the CHARM / CHARIVNIST concept in English and Ukrainian Internet discourses on the basis of the text-recommendations “How to be Charming” / “Yak staty charivnoyu”, etc. The object of the research is concept CHARM / CHARIVNIST as an aesthetic component of the English and Ukrainian world images; the subject – similarity, difference and contrast in the ways of verbalization of concept CHARM / CHARIVNIST in the English and Ukrainian languages and peculiarities of the discourse realization of the given concept in corresponding linguocultures. Internal and external characteristics of the formation of the image of the CHARMING PERSON have been singled out. Internal features are semantic indicators of the concept CHARM / CHARIVNIST. External features are physical indicators of the concept and include mimic, eye contact, voice and touching features. For English-speaking recipients, such axiological feature as SELF-DEVELOPMENT or DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY is important, which is foregrounded through its components: self-esteem, self-confidence, self-control, “simply-be-yourself” that appear first of all in the body language, for example, FACE (satisfaction, expressive), SMILE (genuine, big, friendly, sincerely), EYE CONTACT (direct), TOUCHING (light), HANDSHAKE (firm), and VOICE (boldness, confident, gentle, peaceful, direct). The following axiological features of the concept of CHARIVNIST in the Ukrainian texts-recommendations have been singled out: sincerity, cheerfulness, originality, with physical characteristics (eyes, voice, smile) serving as "external indicators of the charming inner world", for example, eyes as a mirror of the soul, a smile as a generator of positive fluids, etc. It has been proved that the discoursive feature of SELF-DEVELOPMENT of the English concept CHARM is contrasting. It has been established that such discoursive feature of the Ukrainian concept CHARIVNIST as ORIGINALITY is contrasting, and the discoursive features CONFIDENCE and VPEVNENIST are integral to the two concepts.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psycholinguistic Dimension of Communicative Intention: Speaker’s Substance and Syntaxing 2018-12-17T07:13:42+02:00 Svitlana Shabat-Savka <p>The article analyzes the communicative intention as a linguistic category which has a direct connection with the psychological space of the linguistic personality, with a number of psychic phenomena, a sphere of consciousness and thinking, with the motivation of the speech activity of communicants and the explication of their intentions in textual communication; the terminological correlation of intention is defined in the context of psycholinguistic concepts «need», «motive», «intent», «intentionality». It was noted that the speaker’s motivation-need generates the preverbal intention, which in the process of communication and text-formation is verbalized through syntactic units.</p> <p>With the help of well-chosen linguistic methodology, it was found that the communicative intention is the prerogative of the speaker, who enters into the process of communication with his/her emotions and desires, personal beliefs and preferences, with successes and failures, which ultimately marks the intentional horizons of the communication, determines the course of tolerant or atolerant interaction, the choice of commonly used or ethnomarked, direct or indirect means, figurative-rhetorical structures for the verbalization of various intentions.</p> <p>The illustrative material presents the functioning of tolerant and atolerant registers of communication; it was highlighted that tolerance implies a respectful attitude to the interlocutor, the free realization of the speaker’s individual needs, and the friendly atmosphere of the communication process. Atolerant communication reveals disequilibria which exists in the relationships&nbsp; between the communicants resulting in the asymmetric speech activity – differences in communicants’ age, physiological and mental state, their intellectual and cultural level make conflicts, aggressiveness and negative behavior of communicants unavoidable.</p> <p>In the context of research done by foreign and domestic scientists, the opinion was substantiated that the intention is an important component of a person's mental state which can be explicated and become accessible to other subjects of the communication process only with the help of syntactic and discursive-genre resources of the language.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Structure of the Association Area of the Stimulus Competence 2018-12-17T07:13:42+02:00 Tamara Sharavara Anatolii Kotsur Nataliia Syzonenko Yanina Tahiltseva <p>The article deals with the analysis of the association area structure of the notion of competence based on the results of the free association experiment. It was found out that respondents verbalize both key components of the lexicographical and terminological meaning of the notion (awareness, experience, skills, knowledge, mind) and its axiological component (politeness, correctness, professionalism, responsibility, respect). Some reactions testify to the process of identifying competence with the professional sphere of activity (profession, job).</p> <p>As a result of processing of associative reactions, it has been established that the associative gestalt of the word-stimulus forms 10 zones – the notional components, the subject, the subject’s activity, the field of the subject’s activity, leading features of the subject’s activity, the moral and ethical face of the subject of activity, characteristic features of the subject’s activity, evaluative reactions, individual reactions, emotions. Each zone of the associative gestalt in accordance with the quantitative indicators is assigned a rank from 1 to 9 (in two zones the number of reactions coincides). The core of the associative gestalt (ranks 1 – 2) includes frequency responses that correspond to the zones «Notional components» and «Leading features of the subject’s activity», the remaining zones (ranks 3 – 9) form the periphery. Core reactions indicate a sufficiently high level of respondents’ mastering of key components of the notion as well as realization of the demand for a new generation of specialists by native speakers that can effectively apply the acquired knowledge and skills in a certain field of activity.</p> <p>The article also deals with the analysis of associative reactions in accordance with the model of the epistemological structure of consciousness of native speakers. It was found out that in the linguistic consciousness of respondents a certain balance is maintained between subjective (the value and motivational sphere) and objective (the logical and notional sphere) images; dominant in the cognitive activity of informers is the mental level of consciousness images, since in the emotional and affective sphere there are no frequency responses, and the body-perceptual sphere is not represented verbally.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Perception and Verbalization of Somatic (Bodily) Codes of Culture in the Conditions of Bilingualism and Biculturalism 2018-12-17T07:13:41+02:00 Svetlana S. Shlyakhova <p>The article is devoted to the perception and verbalization of somatic (bodily) codes of culture in the conditions of bilingualism and biculturalism. The ability of Komi-Permian bilinguals to identify somatic codes of their culture was revealed. The experiment was conducted in the form of an individual questionnaire in the Komi-Permyak district of the Perm region of the Russian Federation. The experimental material was created using the method of generalized portrait. Two images of real girls (Komi-Permyak and Russian) were superimposed on each other with the help of Face Morph program. “Artificial” person is obtained as a result, which combines somatics representatives of two non-related ethnic groups (Indo-European and Finno-Ugric). Three images (Russian, Komi-Permyak and “artificial” faces) were presented to respondents. It is established that the Komi-Permians recognize faces somatic code well. In the conditions of bilingualism and biculturalism somatic codes of culture in the consciousness of Komi-Perm change more slowly than in Russian. 62% of Komi-Permyaks choose the face of their ethnic group. The Komi-Permians “artificial” person likes least of all (9% of respondents). 29% of the Komi-Perm choose Russian face. Interpretation of the code is a subjective process and often depends on personal perception in the control groups of Russians. Russians choose an “artificial” person is 4 times more often than the Komi-Permians. Choose more often (52%), Komi-Permyatskiy face the Russians, who constantly live in the Permian Komi district. Russians who are not affected by Komi-Permyak culture choose Komi-Permyak face in 42% of cases. Russians Komi-Perm district choose the Russian face 6 times less likely (8,7%) than&nbsp; face of Komi-Permyaks (52%). Komi-Permians choose a Russian face 3 times more often (29%) than the Russians themselves. The analysis of verbal responses showed that the physicality in the minds of the Komi-Perm with mental and moral characteristics, not physical. These characteristics are actual bodily identifiers for the Komi-Permians.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rare neurological diseases in children: current paradigm of communicational interventions and inclusion 2018-12-17T07:13:40+02:00 Armenuhi Avagyan Hasmik Mkrtchyan Tigran Petrosyan <p>The goal of the presented work is to identify the optimum strategy for the enhancement of communication in patients with rare neurological disorders based on different models. With rapidly developing alternative communication technologies it becomes essential to identify an access method for a child and chose the alternative system of communication. Communication difficulties are common in children with rare neurological disorders. These disorders are manifested with motor, cognitive and sensory deficit. Speech and language therapy applied in these categories of patients is presented in various research publications. When forming a message, human communicators typically use a combination of modes: cognitive, psychological, or psycholinguistic sense to facilitate the way children construct internal representations that can be encoded and presented in different forms. Comprehensive assessment and recommendation of appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems are critical factors in the success of interventions for individuals with rare neurological disorders who have complex communication needs. The assessment of communication difficulties associated with rare diseases is an essential factor for the development of AAC technologies for these pediatric patients. The methods applied in the presented research are: analysis of different studies and, systematization and generalization of the research evidence. Enhancement of communication in patients with rare neurological disorders should be based on the integration of cognitive, psychological, or psycholinguistic models. For children with rare neurological disorders that eventually lead to speech, cognitive and psychological disturbances, AAC methods are the strategies of choice to facilitate communication. These tools with different access methods are used to support inclusion of children with rare neurological conditions into education system.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Тext Understanding as a Special Kind of Understanding 2018-12-17T07:13:39+02:00 Nataliia Akimova Alina Akimova <p>The analysis of modern theories of text understanding are presented in the article. Different theoretical methods and techniques were used for this purpose: deductive and inductive methods, analysis and synthesis, generalization, systematization and modeling as well as some interpretive methods that are based on specific principles of systemic, activity, cognitive and organizational approaches. The author notes that six approaches to the interpretation of understanding can beaccented&nbsp;in modern psychological literature. They are understanding as knowledge, understanding&nbsp;as comprehension, understanding as interpretation, understanding as a process of solving tasks, understanding as the inclusion of new knowledge in the subject's experience, understanding as awareness. But only four of them are used to understand the text. The conclusion is made as a result of systematization of the achievements of these approaches. It is concluded that the process of text understanding is a complex process that occurs at several levels: from the simplest to perception, through interpretation (thinking and memory), to a higher level that is consciousness, where emotional identification and awareness are presented. As a result of understanding someorganized ideas about the text (model, conclusions, mental representation) appear in the mind of the subject. Next they recieve the verbal form and objectify as a secondary text (received from the recipient as a reaction to the read text), that represented&nbsp;concept or secondary meanings. The process and the result of text&nbsp;understanding depend on some subjective factors (the recipient experience (apperception), subjective state at the time of reception, the cultural and historical context) and some objective factors (textual or semantic dominants). Context forms not only preliminary expectations, but also verifies the final result of understanding. It is anew secondary meanings, that accord with already existing senses in the mind. Thus the semantic level of reader consciousness enrich and reorganize, that are represented as change in behavior.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Self-Monitoring and Self-Regulation of University Students in Text Comprehension 2018-12-17T07:13:39+02:00 Eduard Balashov Ihor Pasichnyk Ruslana Kalamazh <p>Many empirical researches and theoretical studies of the topics regarding the interconnection of the processes of student higher education, self-regulated learning, studying motivation and outcomes, text comprehension have been executed in psychology. However, comparatively small part of them has been connected with text comprehension of the students during educational process, especially the cognitive and metacognitive aspects of it. In this article, a phenomenon of metamemory and its role in self-regulated learning and development of text comprehension skills of students have been characterized. We have determined the direction for future research of self-regulated learning and metacognitive processes in the students’ text comprehension activities and their effective use in the educational process. Study of the metagognitive aspects of self-regulation and metamemory will help to improve self-monitoring and self-regulation of students’ training activity in text comprehension.</p> <p>The article characterizes the term of the metamemory phenomenon and its role in the process of self-regulated training and development of text comprehension skills. We have also distinguished possible directions of future researches in self-regulated training and metacognitive processes of students’ activity that is connected with text comprehension as well as with their efficient usage in the teaching process. The necessity of metamemory learning and the process of knowledge transmission in the monitoring-regulation-learning cycle have been distinguished. Theoretical model of metacognitive combination of metacognitive and cognitive processes such as sense of knowledge, metamemory judgments and their categories have been investigated. The conclusions about necessity of the future advanced study of the metamemory phenomenon and students’ training process self-regulation in text comprehension have been made. Possible directions of future researches in metacognition and self-regulation of university students’ studying activity in text comprehension as well as their efficient implementation into the teaching process have been determined.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Peculiarities of Good Representations of the Fourth forms Single-Lingual and Mixed-Lingual Pupils 2018-12-17T07:13:38+02:00 Oleksii Bedlinskyi Tetiana Shcherbak <p>Mixed Russian-Ukrainian dialect in modern junior schoolchildren language, especially bilinguals – is a common phenomenon conditioned by the circumstances of the modern world. The peculiarities of the general representations of mixed-lingual pupils who study at school and communicate outside the lessons in different languages have been revealed in the article; this leads to using a large number of borrowed vocabulary from both languages. In order to study the peculiarities of general representations of Ukrainian, Russian and mixed- lingual pupils, a questionnaire for single-lingual and bilingual pupils of the fourth forms have been conducted. The survey covered 161 students of the fourth forms: 43 pupils who speak at school Ukrainian, and outside of lessons –Russian; 55 pupils – mostly Ukrainian; 66 students - mostly Russian. As a result of the study, pupils’ differences in general representations and associations of representations with different colors have been detected depending on the language of studying and communication outside the classroom. In the process of mastering the native language, along with the capture of culture and the accumulation of their own experience, associations are formed; even if they are little conscious or generally unconscious they influence the formation of images of representations and their emotional color. Fourth form pupils, whose native language is different from the language of studying, representation of «good» may differ from the views of pupils studying in their native language. Mixed-lingual junior pupils, in comparison with the Ukrainian-speaking and Russian-speaking pupils, in the explanation of the «good», the number of definitions through the opposition «evil» increases, which may threatened with radicalization in the future. Language, among other things, is a system that can fix, store and transmit associations as an inheritance. Different language promotes changing associative links of representations and their emotional color and charging in comparison with the associations of both languages. These changes can be considered as «hereditary-speech mutations», which open wide prospects for psycholinguistic studies of passionarity.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psycholinguistic Problem Field of Studies of the Social Online Networks Discourse 2018-12-17T07:13:37+02:00 Vitalii Bochelyuk Nikita Panov <p>The research paper deals with theoretical and applied analysis of communication problems in social online networks. It is shown that due to the specifics of the communication channel a virtual community with unique linguistic, cultural and psychological properties are formed (in this case described the change in the landscape of using Internet resources which arose as a result of deployment of the socio-political crisis in Ukraine). The phenomenon of fragmentary brikolage thinking is described, which arises as a result of influence of the hypertext structure and information load of the Internet environment. The nature of network communication gives grounds to speak about the formation of a special form of speech - oral in terms of essence and printed in terms of realization. The personality is presented in the online discourse in a reduced form: as a set of text and visual messages produced by it. Typical forms of communicative activity in the network environment that have a diagnostic and prognostic value are described. The topical prospects of psycholinguistic studies of the discourse of social online networks are identified: the problem of perception and interpretation of text messages; the problem of the relationship between the technological capabilities of the communication channel and the forms of user communicative behavior: the problem of self-presentation and design of effective communications; the problem of adequate “reading” of the linguistic personality being the partner in communication, recognition of markers of certain psychological disorders; the problem of manipulative and mobilizing influence, the need to develop critical thinking skills regarding perceived information, its falsifications and distortions; the problem of influence of online communication on a particular person, his/her outlook and behavior, as well as on society as a whole; the importance of information technology in the ontogenesis of speech. The methodological problem of developing and improving tools for evaluating human behavior on the Internet is presented through the analysis of texts.</p> 2018-10-03T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##