PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-06-28T11:40:23+03:00 Nataliia Kharchenko Open Journal Systems Psycholinguistics Journal publishes refereed articles dealing with psychological, anthropological, linguistic, social communication and psychodidactic aspects of psycholinguistics «I-language» i. e. «Individual language»: The Problem of Functional Generalization 2021-05-20T00:07:17+03:00 Larysa Kalmykova Nataliia Kharchenko Inna Mysan <p><strong>Goal</strong>. To present the consequence of the functional classification of world languages, carried out on psycholinguistic grounds; to make a brief description of the individual language of a man as his speech-language ability, manifested in various functional-linguistic incarnations; to present the primary and secondary-functional group of languages as a means of realization the communicative and speech needs, motives and intentions of individuals taking into account the functional-linguistic diversity to ensure successful speech communication in micro- and macro-society.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> functional analysis; systematic analysis, generalization of literature; modeling of functional speech and language competence of a person; identification of different types of properties of the individual languages by secondary functional orientation; classification of national languages by their functional purpose; research synthesis; formulation of conclusions.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The functional properties of individual language as a biopsychoneurolinguosocial object can only be described by reference to the concept of “function”. The functions of human language are numerous, so the analysis of the each of them is carried out and its results are presented.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The basis for the functional classification of world languages can be the generative system and language ability (competence) of a man. Functional speech and language ability of a person can be represented as his functional and language metasystem with its inherent functions of the first language, non-native language (second and foreign), dominant language, internal language, individual language, metalanguage, translation language, professional language and other languages in the processes of externalization and internalization. The functions of the world’s languages change in accordance with the changes that occur in the communicative ranks of the national languages – indicators of the volume of functions in different types of communication. The number of language functions in individuals increases depending on the factors that determine the actualization of speech and language ability (biological, genetic), its implementation and improvement (environmental, social, ontogenetic, etc.).</p> 2021-04-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Psychosemantic Dimensions of Basic Concepts of Economic Discourse (Comparative and Professional Aspect) 2021-05-20T00:12:32+03:00 Nataliya Savelyuk Oleg Kalmykov Viacheslav Riznyk <p><strong>The purpose of the study</strong> is the explication and systematization of the nuclear verbal associative reactions of students of economic and philological specialties to the leading economic categories and concepts.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> In our research was used the method of free associative experiment with the involvement of economic categories and concepts as stimulus words. The sample of respondents is formed on the principle of random selection and the rule of informed consent. The concepts recorded by the results of the associative experiment were subjected to the procedure of content-analytical processing using the computer program “Textanz” (version The method of psycholinguistic textual analysis is taken as a conceptual basis for processing and interpretation of the empirical data. The results of the content analysis of the recorded verbal reactions were generalized and compared with respect to the representatives of the two subgroups, as well as with the scientific definitions presented in modern thematic dictionaries.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The following universal tokens are empirically singled out as the nuclear associative reactions of respondents in the context of perception and comprehension of leading categories and concepts of the economic discourse, in particular: “money”, “people", "products (goods)", "production", "plant (factory)", "debt (loan)", "advertising", "management", "salary (income)", "wealth", "market", "business", "science (subject)", "village (farm)" and "products ». Although, in general, future economists have naturally demonstrated more verbal associations, as well as higher coefficients of the lexical diversity of relevant reactions, there are exceptions to this general rule, indicating possible "zones of weakness" for the potential psychological manipulation of any economic activities. This applies, in particular, to such key categories as "market" and "money", which have a significant affective commitment in the overall structure of the studied type of discourse.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Book Review "Psykholinhvistychnyi pidkhid do travmatychnoi pamiati" ["A Psycholinguistic Approach to Traumatic Memory"] written by L. Zasiekina, S. Zasiekin, O. Shevchuk) 2021-05-20T00:17:16+03:00 Olena Savchenko <p>The monograph, which is being reviewed, is devoted to an extremely important problem of modern psychology - the study of special aspects of the organization in memory of traumatic information about unpleasant life events as an important factor in effectively overcoming psychological traumatization. The authors argue that ignoring this aspect in the psychological practice of helping clients leads to negative consequences: escalation of the current traumatic state, the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the formation of depression, phobias, and ineffective behavior patterns. The novelty of this study lies in the fact that the authors proposed to study traumatic memory as a psychological phenomenon that functions within the normal range, and, therefore, which can be diagnosed without the use of medical diagnostics and neurodiagnostics methods. The reorganized traumatic experience, which consists of memories of traumatic life events which have been rethought and intellectually experienced, is the content of the traumatic memory. This approach significantly expands the opportunities of studying traumatic experience, since it allows using well-known memory models that were developed in the cognitive psychology and other psychological approaches in this research area.</p> 2021-04-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS The Language of Confrontation in Everyday Discourse: Intentional Depreciation 2021-05-20T10:44:14+03:00 Vitalii Kotsur Iryna Vilchynska Liudmila Nykonenko Anton Kisse <p>The <strong>goal</strong> of the article is to present the results of the analysis of authentic dialogues and the interpretation of the intentions of linguistic techniques and means, including socio-political neologisms, which are used by subjects of communication at the level of common discourse (in particular, in social networks) in order to depreciate the interlocutor.<br><strong>Methods and methodology.</strong> During the research a complex of general scientific and psycholinguistic methods was used: recording of dialogues and utterances, content analysis, categorization, typologization, generalization, expert evaluation, interpretation of the results, as well as linguistic, qualitative and instructional analysis.<br><strong>Results</strong>. As a result of the study of conflict social political vocabulary in everyday discourse the following types of depreciation are identified: (1) depreciation of the person/group subject status; (2) depreciation of the person/group subject to the status of an animal or plant; (3) depreciation of the person/group subject to the status of an inanimate object. The analysis of speeches on a particular community or person<br>according to this typology also allows us to identify the intensity of impairment: the speeches are characterized by a violation of the symmetry of communication, which ranges from disdain to giving the speaker the status of an inanimate object. A feature of all types of depreciation is the creation of new words and the use of suffixes to strengthen or soften the negative load of the utterance.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Conflict language is a display of intrapersonal and group psychodynamic processes, and in its articulation a set of protective mechanisms is actualized, which contributes to the restoration of psychological comfort in difficult socio-political conditions. In general, the investigated conflict vocabulary can be defined as verbally written communication aimed at depreciation of a person or a group subject to achieve or fix individual and/or group subjects’ dominant positions in communication. The auto-aggressive nature of the use of conflict language destroys social cohesion,<br>but also has positive functional consequences: its intensification partly contributes to psychological discharge at the individual level and the reduction of socio-psychological tension at the collective level.</p> 2021-04-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Edification Dictums in the Language Consciousness of the Kazakh Ethnos 2021-05-20T00:28:39+03:00 Galina Abramova Natalya Dmitryuk <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Objective<strong>: </strong>linguacultural analysis of the edification words, collected in a free associative experiment (FAE) and published in the “Kazakh Associative Dictionary”.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods. </strong>Set of associations of instructive character singled out by the continuous sampling method into a separate fragment of the world paremiological image is a unique representative research material included into the Kazakh Associative Dictionary, in the 23 655 associative reactions of the students of different universities in Shymkent city for112 stimulus words, 272 sayings – edifications recorded in 200 questionnaires. Archetypal layers of the ethnic linguistic consciousness represented in the edifying paremias reflect the Kazakh spiritual and moral values. The content of the FAE and Kazakh Associative Dictionary reflects the indicative feature of the study, i.e. introduction of the gender factor differentiating the men and women associations; it provided for revealing and presentation of the reliable characteristics of the gender determined linguistic consciousness of the informants. The content of the sayings-edification mainly relates to the moral life of the nation, they enshrine the generally accepted ethical norms.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Gender irrelevant positions: evil and good are equally evaluated differently; respect for elders is clearly manifested.</p> <p>Gender marked positions: for men – duty to the homeland, responsibility for the family; desire to work together; for women – the desire to protect family values, to correspond to the accepted world order, androcentrism.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The linguistic consciousness of the ethnos (in particular, its fragment as an actively demanded paremiological fund) reflects archetypal ideas about the ethnic spiritual and moral worldview values, on which stable elements of the modern Kazakh linguistic culture are formed and actively functioning; being vital for the ethnic integrity.</p> 2021-04-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Wеb-project “STIMULUS” as a Tool of Psycholinguistics 2021-05-20T00:33:47+03:00 Olha Zahorodnia <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The article describes the functional characteristics of the web-service “STIMULUS” (“СТИМУЛУС”), which is the first Ukrainian psycholinguistic on-line tool for the research based on the associative experiments, illustrates empirical data to show the operational principles of the web-service.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article </strong>are describing the functions of the author’s web-service “STIMULUS” ( and analyzing the social and political lexis associative fields created in 2018–2021.</p> <p><strong>The methods of the research </strong>are: (а) the psycholinguistic method of the free associative experiment and (b) the computer modelling were used to create the social and political lexis associative fields; (c) the programming method of domain-driven development was used to create the web-service; (d) the descriptive method was used to show the “STIMULUS” functions and&nbsp; empirical results; (e) the set of certain methods and techniques was used for the association’s analysis (includes classification, component analysis technique&nbsp; and others); (f) the set of statistical methods is used within the web-service to provide the empirical associative data calculation and visualization automatically.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The “STIMULUS” main parts are “Information”, “Research”, “Associative Data”. The “STIMULUS” helps to research the semantics of linguistic units, the linguistic worldview fragments, the personal psychological and semantic portraits (associative behavior) based on the automatic denotative and connotative analysis of the associations and provides results visualization. The pilot research of the social and political lexis in 2018–2021(100 stimuli, 97 respondents), organized with the “STIMULUS” help, found out: (1) the stimulus “independence” was associated by the Ukrainians with the state independence; (2) the stimulus “authority” got positive connotations; (3) the stimulus connotation can fluctuate up (like of “reform” and “authority”) and down (like of “society”).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The main functions of the “STIMULUS” are organizing the psycholinguistic associative research online, automatic analysis of the associative fields as well as personal psychological and semantic portraits, creation the mass associative database. The “STIMULUS” peculiarities are opened access, adaptability to the specific psycholinguistic tasks, multilingual interface and results visualization. The research of social and political lexis in 2018–2021 with the help of the “STIMULUS” proved its relevant advantage in the associative field modelling and analysis.</p> 2021-04-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Psycholinguistic Specifics of Understanding by Ukrainian Students the Principles of Nomination of Linguocultural Models “clothing” in English and Ukrainian 2021-05-20T00:44:01+03:00 Nataliia Mykhalchuk Pavlo Levchuk Ernest Ivashkevych Liudmyla Yasnohurska Olena Cherniakova <p><strong><em>The purpose</em></strong><em> of the article </em><em>is: to show psycholinguistic peculiarities of understanding by Ukrainian students the principles of nomination of linguocultural models “clothing” in the English and Ukrainian languages.</em></p> <p><em>The <strong>methods</strong> of the research are: theoretical ones – categorical and structurally-functional analysis of the texts, the methods of systematization, modeling, generalization; empirical methods – the analysis of lexical units, the</em><em> experiment. For the purpose of studying</em> <em>the</em> <em>motivation</em> <em>of</em> <em>linguocultural</em> <em>units we used “The</em> <em>methods</em> <em>of</em> <em>studying</em> <em>of</em> <em>motivation</em> <em>by</em> <em>linguocultural</em> <em>units</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>thematic</em> <em>group</em><em> “</em><em>clothing</em><em>” </em><em>in</em> <em>the</em> <em>English</em> <em>and</em> <em>Ukrainian</em> <em>languages”</em><em> (</em><em>Mykhalchuk </em><em>&amp;</em><em> Ivashkevych, </em><em>2020).</em></p> <p><strong><em>The results </em></strong><em>of the research.</em><em> For the understanding of linguocultural units of the thematic group “clothing” in the Ukrainian language the laws of organization of usualized (a priori) and actual (a posteriori) communicative meanings, their interaction, movement, etc. are quite important. For understanding linguocultural units of the thematic group “clothing” in the English language it is sufficient superficial perception of lexical units that denote the nominations of clothing, understanding the features of their motivation, in particular, verbs, nouns and adjectives, as well as mastering the form of presentation of this or that lexical unit.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> As a result of the research psycholinguistic features of students’ understanding of linguocultural units of the thematic group “clothing” in the English and Ukrainian languages were established. Productivity of students’ understanding of linguocultural units of the thematic group “clothing” in the Ukrainian language is determined by (a) the deep meaning of lexical units; (b) semantics and spatio-temporal meanings of linguocultural units; (c) syntactics of lexical units; (d) verb and noun basis of clothing nomination; (e) various connections between explicit concepts (metaphorical and metonymic transference); (f) assertive content of the nominative unit denoting “clothing”; (g) understanding of inferences, implications, intentions of the expressionж (h) explication of usualized (a priori) communicative meanings.</em></p> 2021-04-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Psycholinguistic Nature of the Language Norm and its Place among the Factors of Speech Activity 2021-05-20T00:39:13+03:00 Iuliia Makarets <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The article focuses on the psycholinguistic aspect of studying language norm as a regulator of human speech activity.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the research</strong> is to clarify psycholinguistic essence of language norm and its role in individual speech activity and in interpersonal communication.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The research is based on materials collected during interviews and questionnaires, as well as on statements recorded due to linguistic observation. In results processing elements of statistical method were applied. They were interpreted on the basis of the methodology of expert assessments, intent analysis and discourse analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> It analyzes correlation between concepts linguistic norm and speech norm, essence of language norm as a filter, which regulates implementation of language system in a particular speech act, level of awareness of language norms by the speaker, etc. The article finds out dependence between following language norms and their implementing (in case if they allow for choice as long as there are systemically determined norms) by speech addresser and his prediction of audience expectations. It presents the problem of evaluation of speech by an audience and a speaker himself in terms of communicators’ ideas about system of language norms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Thus, language norm is an external regulator of speech activity of a person, which after internalization acquires the role of internal one; simultaneously level of speaker’s awareness about this norm decreases and he begins to apply it unconsciously. Also the article analyzes violations of language norms (language deviations) as a phenomenon of dual nature: occasionally they appear as communicative noise, that can distract from the basic idea of expression or obscure it; in others, as an active communicative aggravator, can be deliberately used by speaker as a means of expression, which acts like antinorm and reveals the creative potencies of language system.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Investigating the Concept of “Flirting” as Reflected in the Russian-Speaking Ukrianians’ Linguistic Consciousness 2021-06-28T11:40:23+03:00 Iia Gordienko-Mytrofanova Iuliia Kobzieva Denis Hohol <p><strong>The purpose </strong>of this study is to define and describe the semantic components of the verbalised concept “flirting” as a component of ludic competence in the linguistic consciousness of the Russian-speaking people from Eastern Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>The main method </strong>of the research was a psycholinguistic experiment. The sample comprised 400 young people (aged 18-35), males and females being equally represented.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The experiment results proved that the concept&nbsp;“flirting”&nbsp;in the linguistic consciousness of the Russian-speaking population of Ukraine is represented by four core semantic clusters: “verbal and nonverbal means of communication” (27.75%), “forms and types of interaction” (25.25%), “emotions, feelings, states” (24.75%), and “gender” (10.5%). The peripheral clusters “romantic relationship” (4%) and “meeting place” (1.5%) are represented by a relatively equal number of male and female reactions. The fact that clusters on the extreme periphery are exclusively represented either by female (“secret actions”) or male reactions (“time of year”) is most probably explained by certain individual preferences in usage rather than by gender-specific tendencies. The analysis of isolated reactions allowed distinguishing the following cluster reactions: “age” (youth), “period of time” (temporality) and “time of day” (it is getting late).</p> <p>The associative behaviour of the respondents is characterized by a heterosexual orientation of flirting, which is reflected in the peripheral subcluster “heterosexuality” (1.25%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Based on the results of cluster analysis, two psycholinguistic meanings of the concept of “flirting” were described: 1. A type of courtship that does not involve sexual intimacy (90.75%) and 2. Sexual relations (4.5%).</p> <p>The semantic content of the concept core of “flirting” does not depend on gender identification based on the results of the analysis of female and male associative fields. The attitude of informants to the stimulus of “flirting” is emotionally positive and is characterized by positive evaluation.</p> <p>The comparative analysis of the verbalised concept “flirting” in the linguistic consciousness of Russian-speaking population of Ukraine and people who live in Russia revealed a wider semantic scope and prominent positive attitude to the stimulus of Ukrainian sample. In general, the evaluation of this phenomenon by Russian-speaking respondents in Ukraine and members of the Russian linguistic culture is presented mainly by positive and neutral reactions.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Metaphorical Conceptualization of WAR in Chinese Sports Discourse 2021-05-20T00:30:19+03:00 Olha Vorobei Alina Akimova Anastasiya Akimova <p><strong>The purpose</strong> of the article is to analyze the verbally expressed phenomenon of the metaphorical model SPORT IS WAR in the Chinese sports media discourse, to describe the ways of its conceptualization and to investigate the peculiarities of its functioning.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Through the linguo-cognitive and quantitative analysis of a representative sample of Chinese texts of sports discourse, the dominant concept of which was SPORT, there was identified the following system of metaphorical models: SPORT IS WAR, SPORT IS THEATER, SPORT IS FAMILY and SPORT IS WAY OF LIFE. The method of metaphorical modeling was chosen as the main method of empirical research of the metaphorical model SPORT IS WAR. Attention was focused on the definition of the main models of conceptual sports metaphor, which have a frame-slot structure, where were revealed the linguistic means of its reproduction.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>There have been studied structural and semantic properties of sports metaphor in Chinese media discourse, the expansion source of which is the conceptual sphere of WAR. In the article there was presented a structural analysis of the frames in which sporting events and their participants are presented as warriors on the battlefield, striving for victory, which is a metaphorical rethinking of the undisputed thirst for victory. It has been found that the metaphorical model SPORT IS WAR in Chinese sports discourse is represented by three main frames: <strong>«</strong>Hostilities<strong>»</strong>, <strong>«</strong>Results of war<strong>»</strong>, <strong>«</strong>Warriors<strong>»</strong>. Within each frame, there were highlighted the main slots, described their lexical content, determined the communicative functions of the metaphorical model SPORT IS WAR in the Chinese sports discourse and clarified the reasons for its activation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The frame-slot structure of the metaphorical model SPORT IS WAR, presented in Chinese media discourse, reflects a strong desire and will to win and absolute rejection of defeat, and indicates the intensification of the studied metaphorical model in the period of the expansion of China’s global hegemonic strategy. It was found that in the objectification of the concepts of the conceptual sphere of SPORT, which reflect the victory of Chinese players, dominates the positive evaluative metaphors describing the hostilities, its participants and the results of the confrontation, and negative evaluative metaphors are used for intensifying the deafest of the opponents. Although sport activity a priori aimed at emphasizing the best human qualities, its personal development and called upon for showing the respect to all participants, still in Chinese sports discourse this process is more and more taken by addressers and recipients as warfare. Hereby, metaphorical conceptualization of WAR in Chinese sports discourse is indisputable and defined by paralinguistic peculiarities of military and sport activities, which despite of their visual difference have certain conceptual similarity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Semantic Universals of the «Picture of the World» of Future Counseling Psychologists 2021-05-20T00:14:25+03:00 Oksana Serhieienkova Svitlana Kalishchuk Tatiana Zabolotna <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>. </strong>The experience gained and recorded in the «worldview» of the interaction of the future psychologist-consultant with the world is “packed” into special structures – semantic universals. Semantic universals have a linguistic expression and open up as meaning. The «worldview» as a stable dynamic system performs an incentive and indicative function and acts as internal activity plan of the future psychologist-consultant. The given property of the «worldview» in reconstruction arouses research interest to modeling methods of its meaningful description as a system of meanings and the main coordinates of semantic experience. <strong>Aim. </strong>Reveal the specifics of modeling semantic universals as a set of meanings of the «worldview» of future psychologists-consultants. <strong>Research procedure. </strong>The description of the «meter» was chosen as the type of semantic modeling. It was implemented by the methods of definition of concepts and evaluation grid. The obtained results were processed by the method of hierarchical cluster analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The system of semantic universals is obtained, which consists of 12 concepts. As a scheme for their description, measurements of the basic categories «image» were used. The dendrogram designated two generalized clusters of semantic universals: «resource and intention» and «dynamics», which can be considered as the semantic basis of the « worldview » of future psychologists-consultants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The main coordinate points of the « worldview » of future psychologists-consultants are formulated during the establishment of inter-conceptual relations of the system of semantic universals as a text. The lack of measurements of «substantiality» and «event» in the semantic universals of the «worldview» under study revealed the scarcity of their subjective way of classifying events as a response of the world to certain actions and lack of actualization of oneself and one’s existence. The indicated position requires the compilation of algorithms and modeling conditions for the development of the systemic existential component of the «worldview » of future psychologists-consultants.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Discourseology of Linguistic Consciousness: Neural Network Modeling of some Structural and Semantic Relationships 2021-06-28T11:08:55+03:00 Vitalii Shymko <p><strong>Objective. </strong>Study of the validity and reliability of the discourse approach for the psycholinguistic understanding of the nature, structure, and features of the linguistic consciousness functioning.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>. This paper analyzes artificial neural network models built on the corpus of texts, which were obtained in the process of experimental research of the coronavirus quarantine concept as a new category of linguistic consciousness. The methodology of feedforward artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptron) was used in order to assess the possibility of predicting the leading texts semantics based on the discourses ranks and their place in the respective linear sequence. Same baseline parameters were used to predict respondents' self-assessments of changes in their psychological well-being and in daily life routine during the quarantine, as well as to predict their preferences of the quarantine strategies. The study relied on basic ideas about discourse as a meaning constituted by the dispersion of other meanings (Foucault). The same dispersion mechanism realizes itself in interdiscourse interaction, forming a discursive formation at a higher level. The method of T-units (Hunt) was used to identify and count discourses in the texts. The ranking of discourses was provided based on the criterion of their semantic-syntactic autonomy.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The conducted neural network modeling revealed a high accuracy in predicting the work of the linguistic consciousness functions associated with retrospective self-assessment and anticipatory imagination of the respondents. Another result of this modeling is a partial confirmation of the assumption concerning existence a relationship between the structural parameters of the discursive field (the rank of the discourses and their place in the respective linear sequence) and the leading semantics of the text.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>A discourse approach to the study of linguistic consciousness, understanding of its structure and functioning features seems to be reasonably appropriate. The implementation of the approach presupposes the need to form a base of linguistic corpora with the inclusion in each text markup of such parameters as: the presence of specific discourses, their ranks, positions in the linear sequence of discourses.</p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Semantic Differentiation of Food Attributes in Consciousness of People with Orthorexia 2021-05-20T00:10:58+03:00 Olga Lozova Maryna Fatieieva <p><strong>The purpose.</strong> The article presents the results of study, the aim of which was to identify semantic space to the concept «food» among people with orthorexia nervosa. The term «orthorexia» is characterized by an obsessive desire for «healthy and proper eating», which leads to significant restrictions in the choice of food, that affect other areas of life and may lead to social isolation.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The methods of verbal semantic differential and Intuitive Eating Scale-2 were used in the study. The basic coordinates of the semantic space were the statistical series of measured quantities that characterize interaction of respondents with food: tactile attractiveness, orderliness of nutrition, evaluation of the usefulness and emotional content of food. The sample covered 326 subjects, men and women aged 18 to 68 years (77 males and 249 females). The average age was 30;64 years, the standard deviation of 11;61.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The semantic space of food perception by respondents with orthorexia is characterized by the predominance of the following criteria: perceptual attractiveness, order, usefulness and emotional attribution. The criterion of perceptual attractiveness is the least important for people with orthorexia, nevertheless they react to food quite emotionally.</p> <p>The semantics of such properties of food as «tasty», «quality», «usefulness», «beauty», «naturalness» and «fatness» directly correlate with indicators: intuitive eating; unconditional permission to eat; tendency to eat for physical rather than emotional reasons; reliance on hunger and satiety cues, body-food choice congruence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion. </strong>As a result of the analysis, the semantic space of food perception by respondents with orthorexia is outlined. The hypothesis of the relationship between the semantics of food properties and the levels of food intuition of the subject is fully verified.</p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Conceptualization of the Axiological Opposition Goodness – Evil (خوبیxubi – بدی badi) in the consciousness of the Persian native speakers 2021-05-20T00:37:20+03:00 Olena Mazepova <p><strong>The objective of the article</strong> is to determine the conceptual content of the axiological opposition “good-evil” in the Persian language consciousness based on the cognitive interpretation of the results of psycholinguistic experiment held among the Persian native speakers.</p> <p><strong>Methods of the research.</strong> Two methods of psycholinguistic analysis of word’s semantics have been used, viz.: free associative experiment and the method of direct interpretation of a word meaning. In total 102 persons of different age and social status took part in the experiment. Associative fields of the explored concepts were established based on the results of processing data collected during the 1st stage of the experiment; and their semantic fields were determined after analysis of unabridged predications in the course of semantization of proposed words. Result data were processed using special method of grouping language material based on content-analysis: the benchmark words repeated in the answers of different participants were taken as units of the analysis and regarded as key concept features. At the final stage of the analysis there was performed cognitive interpretation of the data after the principle of “construing” the meaning of linguistic expressions stipulated by Ronald Langacker.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The results of the experiment revealed that the axiological opposition “good-evil” conceptualized in the Persian language consciousness has both universal and ethno-specific features. Moreover, prevailing of the former demonstrates that in the mentality of the Persian native speakers the idea of good and evil totally corresponds to the universal human worldview, where these moral and ethic categories serve as a basis for the system of the personal values.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>It was concluded that using the methods of cognitive- and psycholinguistics – the two up-to-date linguistic streams – for examining particularities of conceptualization of different fragments of internal and external human’s world by representatives of variuos ethno-cultural societies, is the best way to determine a set of universal and ethno-specific features inherent in both processes of associating of respondents and the content structure of the examined concepts.</p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS COVID-19 Health Communication: Key Moderators of Message Framing 2021-05-20T00:04:45+03:00 Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs Jeanette Altarriba Ahmed Masrai <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong><em>.</em></strong><em> Earlier studies on message framing in the health sector have often focused on the effectiveness of framing in terms of behaviour change and decision making. Much less attention has been paid to the influence of message framing on the emotional responses of the recipients. This neglected aspect is extremely important particularly at times of crises because health care professionals wish to persuade the public to comply with their health advice without causing unnecessary anxiety. The current study examined the effect of message framing on the affect of Arabic-speaking Saudi nationals and residents of Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 lockdown. The effect of message outcome/severity and the recipients’ age/levels of depression and anxiety was also investigated. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials &amp; methods.</em></strong><em> A total of 348 participants of three age groups completed the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1996) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1983), and rated the positivity of 48 COVID-19 health messages of different framing along a 6-point Likert scale. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results showed a strong effect of message framing and severity and the recipients’ age on the recipients’ emotional responses. A limited influence for message outcome was also noted. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> It is recommended to use gain-framed health messages to the public in order to avoid anxiety and maintain their positive affect. This is particularly recommended with younger adults whose affect gets negatively impacted by loss-framed messages quite easily. Loss-framed messages are recommended for in severe situations that have desirable outcomes. </em></p> 2021-03-13T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS The Dialect of Hasawis and Bedouins in Al-Ahsa (Saudi Arabia): A Comparative Study 2021-05-20T00:41:52+03:00 Mahmoud El Salman Abdullah Al Fridan <p><strong><em>Introduction. </em></strong><em>This paper is a sociolinguistic study</em><em> that aims to investigate the speech of two groups in Al-Ahsa (Saudi Arabia) for the purpose of making a comparison between their speech.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>. This study is empirical in its methods in that it is fully dependent on naturalistic speech.</em> <em>All the interviews, which were conducted in Al-Ahsa were conducted using the face-to-face technique for obtaining data with regard to linguistic variation. </em><em>In this, the focus is on the Hasawi people and the Bedouins.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. The study indicates that these two groups manipulate their dialect, in particular the key features of their dialects, to emphasize distinctiveness and negotiate identity. The study shows that while the linguistic behavior of the elderly in both groups is similar both within and outside of the group, the young generations show differences in their speech behavior. Additionally, group identity is very important to them. Outside the group, the possibility of interacting with members of the other group occurs, and, within this context, strong correlations appeared between linguistic factors and social factors, in particular the group identity among young males and gender distinctness among young females in both groups. Young males stereotypically tend to use the local linguistic forms, in particular the forms that are considered "the most salient feature which carries the social meaning of locality (Al-Wer, 1991: 75) and symbolizes local identities.</em> <em>The linguistic behavior of young males in both groups exhibits almost the same trends. Both are proud of the identity of the group to which they belong, particularly in gatherings in which other identities are present. Thus, unlike the two other age groups, the use of the /ts/ by the young Bedouin males and the use of the /EL/ by Hasawi young males increase in these settings rather than inside their own groups. This indicates that displaying one’s group identity is of significance to the young males in each group when a possible interaction takes place. While the use of the /EL/ among young Hasawis inside the group is 55.0%, its use was 70.0% in contexts outside the group and in the presence of other identities. The use of the /ts/ variant inside the group is 40%, while it is 60.0% outside the group.</em> <em>It also shows that the linguistic behavior of the Hisawi elderly is almost identical to the linguistic behavior of the elderly in the Bedouin group. In both groups, age (young, middle-aged or elderly) appears to be significant. </em></p> <p><em><strong>Conclusion</strong>. The study shows that social competition is primarily expressed in the linguistic forms used. The more this social competition increases, the more unlikely the possibility of giving up one's social dialect becomes. People say much more through an accent than through the semantic content of the speech itself. To conclude, the study shows that social competition is frequently expressed in the linguistic forms used. <br></em></p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Functioning of Pronominal Lexemes kakoj ‘which’ and kak ‘how’ in the Speech of Russian Children 2021-05-20T00:35:16+03:00 Sofia Krasnoshchekova <p><strong>Introduction. Objectives.</strong> The paper discusses functioning of Russian pronominal lexemes kakoj ‘which’ and kak ‘how’ in the speech of children, separating them from other interrogative/relative wh-words. It also questions to what extent children’s speech behavior in this field is different from adults’ behavior.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods.</strong> To analyse children’s speech we have used transcripts of audio and video recordings provided by the Children’s speech data foundation of Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University and Institute of Linguistic Studies RAS (5 children aged 1,5 to 6 years); to analyse adults’ speech we have used the data of the spoken subcorpus of the Russian National Corpus. We have extracted 925 utterances with kakoj and kak from the children’s corpora and, for comparison, 1040 utterances from the Russian National Corpus, and run the functional-semantic analysis of the utterances.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The main functions characteristic for kakoj and kak are: relative, interrogative, deictic, emphatic and indefinite. In the children’s speech the first place is given to the types connected with the idea of the deictic reference point: demonstrative phrases like vot kakoj ‘that’s what/which’, demonstrative-relative constructions like smotri, kakoj ‘look, what/which’, emphatic, and such interrogative types, where the referent is present within the communicative situation. The adults’ speech primarily features the interrogative function (the referent is outside of the communicative situation) and relative constructions with the verbs of speech and thought. Moreover, only adults use the indefinite function.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> "Kakoj" and "kak" in the speech of children tend to be more deictic than quantifying (interrogative) and closer to their demonstrative counterparts takoj ‘such’ and tak ‘in a such manner’ that to other wh-words. When children grow older, their pronominal system becomes more adult-like: the number of demonstrative utterances decreases, while the questions on the objects and actions excluded from the communicative situation get more frequent; relative constructions with the verbs of speech and thought and with coreferent nouns and pronouns develop.</p> 2021-03-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS E-Learning 2.0: Psycholinguistic Analysis (Article 2) 2021-05-20T00:32:29+03:00 Helen Goroshko Nikolai Pakhnin <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The paper enlightens e-learning 2.0 linguistic consciousnesses through psycholinguistic research. An additional objective is to perfect the methodological foundation of psycholinguistics 2.0 – a new direction in linguistics, which studies psychological and linguistic aspects of human speech activity running through web 2.0 platforms, and social and psychological aspects of language use in communication through these services.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>The methods of free and directed associative experiment were chosen as the main method of research. A total of 150 teachers and 179 students of humanities and technical disciplines (329 people in total) took part in the experiment. The native language of the informants was Russian and/or Ukrainian. The experiment was conducted online in two stages. First, the participants were asked to answer the first word they came up with for a number of concepts – the most popular social web services and Internet technologies – and then they had to complete sentences that also included the same social web concepts.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The conducted associative experiment reveals that informational, communicative and functional components of the Global Network are most actualized in the language consciousness of informants – participants of the educational process regardless of the form of carrying out the associative tests (free or directed), but it is the method of incomplete sentences as a variety of the method of directed associations that as a matter of fact directs associations in a functional mainstream more often. Also, the reactions obtained through directed associative test are more often motivated by the syntactic component – the prevalence of syntagmatic associations over pragmatic ones. It is also shown that the way that the experiment is carried out influences which component may be actualized – functional or informational.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The study shows that the educational component of social media is not fixed practically in the linguistic consciousness of our recipients, which indirectly indicates that the use of social media in the educational process doesn’t present a regular practice. It can be argued also that conducting psycholinguistic experiments online is another form of their use, along with the oral and written ones.</p> 2021-03-02T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Verbal Emotional Disclosure of Moral Injury in Holodomor Survivors 2020-12-05T11:27:39+02:00 Larysa Zasiekina Serhii Zasiekin <p><strong>Objectives. T</strong><strong>he </strong><strong>purpose </strong><strong>of the current research</strong> is to define and operationalize moral injury based on moral standards, moral judgements, moral reasoning, moral emotions, moral behaviour, and moral consequences; to explore verbal emotional disclosure of moral injury in Holodomor survivors’ narratives.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods.</strong> The study applies traumatic narratives of 42 survivors of the Holodomor of 1932–1933 in Ukraine. Main themes aligned with morality structure were captured, using software tool NVivo.12. The study uses LIWC2015 to search for psychological meaningful categories, notably anxiety, anger, sadness, and insights (deep comprehension). The research uses the cross-sectional design utilizing the independent variables of anxiety, anger, insights and dependent variable of moral emotions represented in narratives for multiple linear regression analysis and correlations (2-tailed Pearson r) between components of morality, anxiety, sadness and insights, SPSS. 26.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> There is a high frequency of moral judgements and a low frequency of moral emotions and moral consequences in the narratives. A significant positive correlation was found between moral standards and other components of morality, in particular moral judgements, moral reasoning, moral consequences, anxiety, sadness and insight. There was a significant positive correlation between moral emotions and anger, and insight. Anxiety, insights and anger taken together are significant predictors of moral emotions, however, only anger is a robust significant independent predictor of moral emotions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Verbal emotional disclosure of traumatic experience relates to expressing righteous anger, contempt, disgust, decreased empathy, and embarrassment, which substitute other moral emotions, notably shame and guilt. The study contributes to our understanding of anxiety, anger, insights (deep comprehension) taken together as robust predictors of moral emotions. Finally, we captured that there are difficulties in verbal emotional disclosure of experience and moral consequences of the Holodomor, since Holodomor survivors predominantly focus on moral judgements and moral standards.</p> 2020-11-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Psychosemantic Meaning of the Concept of «Teacher» in the Linguistic Consciousness of Students of Pedagogical Specialties 2020-12-05T11:29:20+02:00 Hanna Ivaniuk Olena Goroshko Іnna Melnyk <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The article presents the results of empirical study of the psychosemantic meaning of the concept of «teacher» in the linguistic consciousness of student youth.</p> <p><strong>The purpose.</strong> The purpose of the study is to examine and compare the psychosemantic meaning of the concept of «teacher» in the linguistic consciousness of future educators of preschool institutions and primary school teachers.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. The research is conducted with methods of free associative test and semantic differential. The first – year students of bachelor's educational level in Pedagogics participate in this research.</p> <p><strong>The results.</strong> The results obtained indicate that in the linguistic consciousness of students of pedagogical specialties associations to the concept-stimulus «teacher» have a psychosemantic meaning, characterized by emotional and intellectual aspects. The associative field of the concept of «teacher» in the linguistic consciousness of students majoring in «Preschool Education» and «Primary Education» has some differences. The data of semantic interpretation of the associations obtained and then divided into thematic categories (empathic, intellectual, activity, expressive, creative, volitional), reveal that the psychosemantic meaning of the term «teacher» in the linguistic consciousness of future primary school teachers compared to the preschool education teachers has a stronger intellectual coloration. The analysis of the center and the near periphery of associative field of future primary school teachers indicates that they tend to perceive the teacher as a person who primarily concerns on teaching children, knows how to organize the learning process, and act creatively. She/he is also perceived as smart and educated. However, students majoring in «Preschool Education» put a psychosemantic meaning into the concept of «teacher», which indicates indirectly their emotional perception of the teaching profession. According to the analysis of the center and the near periphery of associative reactions, future educators of preschool teaching perceive the teacher as a person who try to understand the inner world of children, and their upbringing.</p> 2020-11-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Verbal Representation of The Concept “Sacrament” in Students’ Linguistic Consciousness 2020-12-05T11:34:32+02:00 Natalia Kostruba Zhanna Virna <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The aim of this research is psycholinguistic analysis verbal representation of the concept "sacrament" in students' linguistic consciousness.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods. </strong>&nbsp;We used free WAT (word association test) for psycholinguistic analysis. The respondents have been received a questionnaire with ten words-stimuli (related to religious discourse: clergyman, priest, theologian, church, religion, preaching, sacrament, faith, sin, prayer). In this article, we only analyzed associations for “sacrament”. The sample consisted of 246 students (biologists, psychologists and publishers) from Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> As a result of the free WAT, 277 responses to the stimulus word “sacrament” were, among them 131 different associations. Among the most frequent responses were “confession”, “baptism”, “communion”, “church wedding” and “mystery”. In general, respondents often associate the sacraments with one of the traditional church rites or with their mysterious or sacramental content. We analyzed the grammar and logical characteristics of the obtained associations. It has been shown that central paradigmatic reactions to the stimulus word “sacrament” predominate. The thematic features of the associations to “sacrament” have been analyzed. Seven different thematic groups have been identified: church rite, mystery, sacred, innermost, purgation, emotional experience, organization. The most numerous thematic group is “church rites”. The least numerous thematic group is “organization”. Cluster analysis revealed that the verbalized concept of “sacrament” is represented by two semantic groups of associations: “church rite” and “secret – organization”.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Students view sacrament on two sides. On the one hand, as a ritual (confession, baptism) and its peripheral components (prayer, icon). On the other hand, they also try to comprehend the sacred content of the sacraments (through the prism of faith or emotional experience). An attempt to verbalize concept of “sacrament” is carried out through the use of metaphors. It is demonstrating the faith of young people in the supernatural, miraculous and sacred nature of the sacraments.</p> 2020-11-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Psycholinguistic peculiarities of the discourse of visual epistemology: from logos to visio 2020-12-05T11:36:05+02:00 Vasyl Kremen Volodymyr Ilyin <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The article is devoted to the psycholinguistic analysis of visual examination in the discourses of modern epistemology offering new formats of interaction between “word” and “vision”, and also determine the correlation between language and consciousness, verbal and visual in cognition and thinking.</p> <p><strong>Research goal </strong>is in theoretical substantiation the use of psycholinguistic methods in the conceptualization of visual studies as a new format of modern epistemological discourses based on hermeneutics, cognitivism, and psychology of perception and its modifications as well.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods. </strong>An interdisciplinary approach, the methods of hermeneutics, modern epistemology and visualisation, hermeneutic, phenomenological, cognitive practices, and experimental research data collection.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Theoretical analysis has shown the importance of hermeneutic interpretation of texts, where a person through psychological contemplation and pre-logical, pre-reflective, pre-conceptual experience opens new horizons of knowledge about the world and himself. Language as the "house of being" is a psycholinguistic sphere that determines the transition from the general structures of consciousness to its psychosemantic correlation with the essential content of knowledge. The sphere of vision as a discourse of modern epistemology expands psychological, cognitive, intellectual, and verbal perception of the world and its understanding in the conditions of social, linguistic, media-visual activity. Visual perception as a perceptual activity in epistemology is inextricably linked with the culture of speech, the practice of logical argumentation, which allows psycholinguistic assessment of scientific, philosophical and cultural knowledge. The images obtained as a result of perception form a new reality, which presents itself in the intentions of visual culture.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Visual studies in the forms of visual culture, visual perception, and visual thinking ensue to be new aspects of modern epistemology, open perspectives of verbal communication in the processes of cognitive-intellectual activity, stimulating the psycholinguistic sphere of scientific analysis.</p> 2020-11-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Facilitation of the Understanding of Novels by Senior Pupils as a Problem of Psycholinguistics 2020-12-05T11:50:44+02:00 Nataliia Mykhalchuk Natalia Hupavsheva <p><strong>The purpose </strong>of the article is to identify main components of the activities of pupils in reading novels at the lessons of World and English literature at secondary school; to propose such types of dialogism, which will facilitate pupils’ understanding of novels; to describe the results of our pilot study which was organized in September-December 2019 at secondary educational institution №15 in t. Rivne at the lesson of English literature with the aim to analyze the types of dialogism in the process of reading and understanding a novel by pupils.</p> <p><strong>Methods and methodical instrumentation </strong>of the research. The following scientific methods were used: holistic analysis of the text, problem-thematic analysis, also comparative analysis (Bondarenko, 2016); the descriptive method, the method of distributive analysis, the method of syntactic transformation of text material (Voronkova, 2020).</p> <p><strong>The results </strong>of the research. Taking into account the features of senior children, we have identified three main components of the activities of pupils in reading novels at the lessons of World and English literature at secondary school. These components are: (1).&nbsp;A cognitive component, that has in its structure: a)&nbsp;contexual reading; (b)&nbsp;interpretive reading; (c) semantic reading. (2).&nbsp;A communicative component. (3). Subjectly-oriented component. We proposed such types of dialogism: (1).&nbsp;Subordinated dialogism, which involves taking into account the personality of the author of the text (or its heroes), which in this case is the subject of the novel. (2).&nbsp;Coordinative dialogism, which, unlike subordinated one, is oriented not so much to the personal aspect as to the procedural nature of interaction in the broad meaning. 3. Personality-reflexive dialogism which is the most meaningful in terms of understanding of the partner in the process of quasi-communication.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> In general, senior pupils tend to focus on coordinative type of dialogism in the process of reading a novel, because, first of all, the procedural interaction between schoolchildren and the author of the novel is quite important for them. In order to actualize subordinate and personality-reflexive dialogism, in our opinion, senior pupils should be involved into the activity of translation of novels written in a foreign language (it is a translation from a foreign language into their native language).</p> 2020-11-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Psychological Peculiarities of Understanding by Students Internet Texts 2020-12-05T11:49:06+02:00 Serhii Maksymenko Olena Nemesh Ksenia Maksymenko Alexander Nabochuk <p><strong>The purpose </strong>of the article is to show psychological peculiarities of understanding by students Internet texts and to determine the predictors of such understanding.</p> <p><strong>Methods and methodical instrumentation </strong>of the research. The following scientific methods were used as the basis of the research: holistic analysis of the text, problem-thematic analysis, also comparative analysis. The following methods have also been used to study the research material: the descriptive method; the method of distributive analysis; the method of syntactic transformation. Also we used <strong>the author’s questionnaire to determine the goals of interpersonal communication in the Internet space (</strong>Nabochuk, 2020<strong>); the questionnaire (</strong>Shkuratova, 2019<strong>), which has the aim to determine the motives of direct and indirect interpersonal communication; the questionnaire with the purpose to provide diagnostics of interpersonal relationships by T. Leary (The questionnaire of diagnostics of interpersonal relationships</strong>, <strong>2018).</strong></p> <p><strong>The results </strong>of the research. It was built a semantic space that characterized the process of understanding of artistic Internet texts of journalistic discourse. Students evaluated the content of these texts by 30 bipolar scales, which were combined after factor analysis into 7 blocks of factors that characterize the “evaluation” of a particular Internet text. (1). “The Assessment”: successful – unsuccessful; interesting – uninteresting; strong – weak; pleasant – unpleasant; predicative – non-predicative. (2). “Tension or Strength”: difficult – easy to understand; tense – frivolous; exceptional – everyday; chained – free; active – inactive; aggressive – non-aggressive; authoritarian – democratic. (3). “Realism or vitality”: natural – fictional; near – far; real – unreal. (4).&nbsp;“Emotional tone”: pessimistic – optimistic; sad – cheerful; selfish – unselfish; suspicious – acceptable. (5). “Depth or psychological content”: psychological – non-psychological; reflective – non reflective; serious – unserious; reasonable – unreasonable; logical – illogical; convenient – inconvenient; dialogical – monologue; dependent – independent. (6). “The Abstractness”: abstract – concrete; fantastic – real. (7).&nbsp;“Multifaceted”: multifaceted – one-sided; complex – simple; compressed – expanded.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> According to the results of our research, we determined four main psychological peculiarities of understanding by students Internet texts. These peculiarities are: (1) understanding the Internet text by its contextuality, the predictors of which are: reality, versatility, paradigm, descriptiveness, deepness, subjectiveness and personally centered qualities; (2) understanding the Internet text by its psychological context, which includes such predictors, as: psychological justification, compressiveness, interest, entertaining, satisfaction, harmoniousness, emotiveness, expressiveness; (3) understanding the Internet text by its emotional context and predictors, such as: comfort, stylistic expressiveness, convenience, expressiveness, lightness, colloquial features, journalistic style of writing; (4) understanding the Internet text by its multifaceted paradigm, which is characterized by such predictors: paradigmatic, space, being updated, its stimulating, dialogic content, comfort characteristics of perceiving, frivolousness.</p> 2020-11-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Cross-Cultural Research of the Use of Obscene Language in the Youth Environment 2020-12-05T11:52:59+02:00 Nataliia Tavrovetska Vitaliia Shebanova <p><strong>The purpose of the research</strong> is to determine the psychological peculiarities of the use of obscene language by young people from different countries with different cultural and linguistic traditions. In the context of the socio-psychological approach, the use of profanities is an indicator of tension in society and individual-personal crises.</p> <p><strong>Research procedure</strong>. During 2018-2019, 518 respondents aged 16-20 were surveyed online. The questionnaire (Google Form) developed contained 15 questions about using foul language in various communication situations. Five national samples with different backgrounds of speech culture formation were analyzed: Ukraine, Russia, Poland, USA, and Asian countries.</p> <p><strong>The results&nbsp;</strong>obtained show that not only external forms of obscene language have a national specificity, but also internal, psychological reactions that accompany such communication. The respondents from Asian countries showed their fundamental rejection of obscenities. The most tolerant perception of foul language was revealed in Russia and Poland. In Ukraine, 43.7% of those surveyed expressed a general negative attitude, but the Ukrainians perceive profanity towards themselves especially seriously. Young Americans are more negative about obscene language in general (as a phenomenon), but they are quite tolerant of using it as to themselves. In terms of frequency and nature of using foul language, the Ukrainian sample is more similar to American and Polish ones than to the Russian sample.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> A typology of the use of obscene language due to the socio-cultural characteristics of different countries has been formulated in the conclusions. The characteristic features of the Ukrainian sample are highlighted, where, based on criminal-vulgarized language, the processes of formation of the democratic society and revival of the national identity take place. Measures on the social regulation of a language norm and prevention of spreading obscene language in the youth environment have been proposed.</p> 2020-11-08T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020