PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2019-06-25T15:02:42+03:00 Nataliia Kharchenko Open Journal Systems Psycholinguistics Journal publishes refereed articles dealing with psychological, anthropological, linguistic, social communication and psychodidactic aspects of psycholinguistics Discourse “Radiotelephony of Civil Aviation”: psycholinguistic aspect 2019-06-25T15:02:42+03:00 Alla Bogush Olena Kovtun <p>The article focuses on psycholinguistic aspects of the discourse “Radiotelephony of civil aviation” (RTF). The relevance of the research is related to the key role that this discourse plays in ensuring flight safety. Psycholinguistic analysis of radiotelephony allowed us to prove its discursive nature based on procedural, interactive, and real-time attributes. The RTF discourse is defined as a closed, narrow-professional, institutional and dynamic type. This discourse is intentional and focused on safe operation of flight; conventional, limited by a set of stereotyped phrases enshrined in regulatory documents and obligatory for radiotelephony participants’ use, by strict regulation of radiotelephony procedures at all stages of flight. We determined that RTF discourse users as representatives of a certain professional space could realize themselves in a limited set of communicative roles. Communicative process “pilot – air traffic controller” is based on the “circular model”, since one-way communication in this type of discourse is not provided for. The “status-role” relations of RTF participants are primarily realized by means of the binary opposition “the initiator of the message” – “the executor / non-executor of the requested action”. Main speech functions realized in RTF discourse are informative and regulatory.</p> <p>RTF discourse is a “language code”, since information transmitted in it is understandable only to the actors of aviation community. Non-compliance with norms of this language code use, as well as a number of psycho-linguistic, psycho-physiological, and extra-linguistic factors lead to disruption of information coding / decoding processes, cause communicative failures, become concomitant factors of aviation accidents.</p> <p>Analysis of psycholinguistic features of RTF discourse, nature and causes of RTF communication failures, and psycho-physiological features of pilot in-flight activity (information overloading, high tempo of work due to time limits, work in stressful conditions) allowed us to determine types of exercises facilitating the process of future pilots training to cope with real difficulties of professional communication in RTF discourse.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Gender- and Role-Specific Differences in the Perception of the Concept “Impishness” (based on the results of a psycholinguistic experiment) 2019-06-25T15:02:39+03:00 Iia Gordiienko-Mytrofanova Iuliia Kobzieva <p>The present paper continues a series of articles devoted to ludic competence and the description of its components with the help of psycholinguistic tools and methods. The present article explores another component of ludic competence, i.e. impishness, and the corresponding cultural concept “impishness”.</p> <p>An attempt has been made to single out gender- and role-specific differences in the perception of the verbalized concept “impishness” in the linguistic world-image of the Russian-speaking population of Eastern Ukraine. Psycholinguistic experiment was the main method of research. The sample comprised 400 older adults (aged 30 – 60), male and female respondents being equally represented.&nbsp;</p> <p>Having analyzed the data from the free association experiment with the stimulus “impishness”, it was revealed that everyday consciousness of common representatives of the Ukrainian linguistic culture reflects all the conceptual meanings that are related to impishness in the intercultural domain.</p> <p>The core of the verbalized concept impishness is represented by four semantic clusters (more than 10%): “<strong>horseplay</strong>”, “<strong>play</strong>”, “<strong>children</strong>”, “<strong>flirting</strong>”.</p> <p>The semantic scope of the concept depends on the gender of the respondents. Thus, for female respondents, the main constituent elements of the concept impishness are children (subject of pranks), as well as foolery and frolicking as manifestations of playful behavior that finds expression in frolic pranks, practical jokes, funny tricks, etc. Male respondents, on the other hand, tend to associate impishness primarily with woman, as well as with immorality, flippant behavior, and various forms of daring, provocative, and imprudent behavior.</p> <p>Therefore, the ambivalent character of the concept “impishness” reveals itself in certain gender- and role-specific differences in its perception. It reveals itself most vividly in behavioral associates and associates that describe various forms of pranks.</p> <p>On the whole, the stimulus “impishness” is generally evaluated as something both positive and negative by all the respondents.11.25% of the respondents display negative attitude to the stimulus “impishness”.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Features of Ethno-Linguistic Identity Characteristic for Representatives of Different Ukrainian Linguistic Groups 2019-06-25T15:02:36+03:00 Eliso Hryshchuk Alla Kovalenko <p>The article analyzes features of ethno-linguistic identity characteristic for representatives of the main Ukrainian language groups: Ukrainian-speaking Ukrainians, Russian-speaking Ukrainians and Russian-speaking Russians. The main concepts of the ethno-linguistic identity theory and ethnic group vitality are examined; individual and collective strategies maintaining positive identity through language are described; the factors influencing language expressiveness in the structure of ethnic identity are presented. The article shows that Russian-speaking Ukrainians are more competent in both languages​(Ukrainian and Russian); Ukrainian-speaking Ukrainians are highly proficient in their ethnic language and have predominantly an average level of Russian language proficiency; Russian-speaking Russians are characterized by good understanding and knowledge of their ethnic language only, at the same time they are low proficient in Ukrainian. As for Ukrainian-speaking Ukrainians and Russian-speaking Russians, their ethnic language competence coincides with their linguistic behaviour and attitudes. Russian-speaking Ukrainians do not show such coincidence; they are characterized by a discrepancy between the prevailing positive attitude to their ethnic language and their real linguistic behaviour. The data shows that the respondents do not choose mainly a language as a main ethnic-determining characteristic, however, in the system together with other distinctive features, it still occupies uppers rank positions for Ukrainian-speaking and Russian-speaking Ukrainians; family ties and psychological choices are more important for ethnic identification of Russian-speaking Russians. The vast majority of the respondents do not focus on their own ethnic status, paying more attention to personal, family and professional social characteristics. Ukrainian-speaking Ukrainians have the most steadfast ethnic identity, and marginal ethnic identity is predominantly observed among Russian-speaking Ukrainians. The relation between language and ethnic identity is described: correspondence between mother and ethnic language determines the respondents’ positive ethnic identity, and vice-versa, their mismatch leads to appearance of ethno-nihilistic tendencies.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psychosemantic Features of Professional Consciousness of Engineers 2019-06-25T15:02:33+03:00 Olha Drobot <p>This article presents results of an empiric study of psychosemantic features of professional consciousness of engineers: the associative structure of key professional notions has been determined, and its key properties have been revealed. The method of free associations has been applied; J.&nbsp;Sax’s and S.&nbsp;Levis’s Unfinished Sentences projective technique; original questionnaire. It was proved that engineers are distinguishable for the desire to get promoted to a higher position while retaining inclination toward the present area of activity; functional autonomy; dependence on organization; internal control locus in the situation of professional problems; long-term professional planning; orientation toward refraining from inflicting damages upon others and themselves; balanced moral principles. An associative experiment has been held with stimuli words that concern professional sphere and with words unrelated to the profession. 1524 reactions to 37 stimuli words have been received in total. Building associative complexes for every stimulating notion allowed to reflect contemporary perceptions of respondents about each of them. The following most frequently occurring associations to the “work” stimulus have been highlighted: knowledge, experience, skills, work routine, Monday-Friday, boss, half-life, prospects, growth, success, hard. One of the features of professional consciousness of engineers is fixation of own subordination in performance of professional duties; inclination toward timely accomplishment of simple professional tasks; orientation of mindset toward integrity and discipline in business communication.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psycholinguistic Study of Functioning of Cognitions and Metacognitions on the Levels of Social Intelligence 2019-06-25T15:01:14+03:00 Eduard Ivashkevych Alla Yatsjuryk <p>The article states that social intelligence in psychology is seen as the ability of a person to understand correctly his/her own behavior and the behavior of other people in the society. This ability is very necessary for a person to have an effective interpersonal interaction and successful social adaptation. Social intelligence implements the functioning of cognitive processes associated with the reflection of a person as a partner in the processes of communication and activities. The main function of social intelligence is to predict the behavior of others.</p> <p>The authors of the article consider the concept of “intelligence” in the broad and narrow senses. In a broad meaning of “intelligence” it is only one intelligence, the intellectual sphere of the person in general. In this sense, the intelligence of a person can be described as a hierarchical system that has several levels. The first level is the level of functioning of cognitions. The second level of intelligence is the level of metacognitions. The third level of intelligence amplifies the characteristics of both the first and the second levels, while intellectual activity is carried out mainly at an unconscious level, a level that approximates a person to use of automated skills and abilities. The next, the fourth level, is the level of meta-intellectual activity, which explodes the creative achievements of the person.</p> <p>It was proved that each type of intelligence contained some abilities of the person to perform a certain type of the activity. Guided by the narrow sense of understanding the word “intelligence”, it was determined: social intelligence; technical intelligence; artistic intelligence; information intelligence.</p> <p>It was described the empirical research which was organized in different regions of Ukraine (the participants of this research were teachers and directors from preschool educational establishments). The results having been received in this research proved that the respondents of all groups have the results which show the advantage of average indicators of their ability to understand the meanings of non-verbal expressions and the meaning of the expression, depending on a social context. This may be due to the fact that these abilities are formed in the immediate process of communication and to a large extent depend on the conditions of the life of the subjects, at the first place – on the conditions of their professional activity, means and methods of professional activity of teachers of preschool educational establishments.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 There is no Target Oriented Speaking Activity without Motivation: Peculiarities of Children’s Monologues Expressions 2019-06-25T15:01:11+03:00 Larysa Kalmykova Iryna Volzhentseva Nataliia Kharchenko Іnna Мysаn <p>The<strong> aim</strong> of the article is in the description a)&nbsp;of finding out motivation peculiarities in extended monologue expressions and speech motives of the children of five and six years olds in ontogenesis; b)&nbsp;established connection between development state of speech motives and development state of lexical and grammatical expressions structuring that are out speaking and have great explanation strength while interpreting mastering and owing processes of the native language and oral speech. The used scientific <strong>methods</strong> are: а)&nbsp;theoretical (analyses of scientific resources, generalization of analyzed literature and its systematization, pointing out of some basic terms, which make the ground of the research, conclusion formulation); b)&nbsp;empirical (playing situations, motivating and speech screening, linguistic content-analyses of children’s judgments, stated, formatting and controlling experiments and survey of children; v)&nbsp;statistics methods. Study of children’s monologue expressions was done in terms of speech operations. The <strong>results</strong> of children’s speech observation uncover peculiarities and development levels of Ukrainian speaking children speech motives of five and six years, peculiarities of children’s speech motivation typical for every of pointed out levels which witnesses that every child who is developing due to the established criteria has individual and irregular development of motivating and speech operations and actions; highlight the dynamic, vectors and mechanisms of speech motivation development; demonstrate typical strategies of gaining by children meaning formulating motive concepts; gradual development of motive targets, with which appearance we see changing of motive and aim, and speech children’s activities epigenetically gain the status of self-estimated and sustainable and goal oriented speech activity; underline operation specific of grammatical structuring of the phrases and extended monologue expressions and selecting words operations according to the forms acted by children; confirm correlated analyses interconnections among motivating and lexically grammatical operations.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psycholinguistics of Virtual Communication in the Context of the Dependence on Social Networks 2019-06-25T15:01:09+03:00 Olga Kaminska Yuri Stezhko Liudmyla Gliebova <p>The article deals with the problem of determining psychological peculiarities of virtual communication of people, who in a great degree are characterized by dependence on social networks. The author of the article has done a comparative analysis of the peculiarities of cyber-communication of addicts and other Internet users. There were analyzed gender differences of virtual communication. It was established that in the contemporary society virtual communication had become more widespread especially if to analyze it according to the latest information technologies. In such a way the process of interpersonal communication is gradually supplanted by virtual means of transmitting information. The specificity of virtual communication was especially emphasized when the person used social networks which served to maintain contacts, to find like-minded people, to express emotional states, including those ones which were considered unacceptable by the society. There were determined psycholinguistic features of virtual communication in the Internet environment: psycholinguistic presuppositions, psycholinguistic semantic presuppositions, pragmatic, psycho-linguistically marked presuppositions. It was underlined that psycholinguistic presupposition is a special kind of logical mastering of virtual information, cognitive explication of frames by means of actualization of a common fund of knowledge of participants in communication about the world, its organization, the place of a person in it and others. Also, in the Internet environment psycholinguistic semantic presuppositions often take place. Them we’ll analyze as a certain semantic component of the message (statement, judgment), the inaccuracy of which in a particular situation makes the message abnormal or inappropriate. It was emphasized that in the space of virtual communication, the pragmatic, psycho-linguistically marked presupposition, which are a component of the message, the speech genre, and discourse (or a text), are directly related to subjective factors of Internet communication (orientation in different situations of virtual communication, actualization of social, cognitive, gender, etc., characteristics of people in one communicative act), the absence of which converts a message, speech genre, discourse (or a text), virtual communication in general into inappropriate – such as insincere, unnatural, provocative, that do not conceal positive conditions, which make a success in a whole.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psycholinvistic Potential Neurogenesis (justification of the application of psycholinguistic techniques for the self-improvement of the mechanisms of the Human consciousness using the idea of neurogenesis) 2019-06-25T15:01:06+03:00 Vasyl Krutov <p><strong>The purpose</strong> of the study is to justify the use of psycholinguistic techniques for self-improvement mechanisms of human consciousness using the idea of neurogenesis. <strong>The research method</strong> consisted in the following procedures: 1)&nbsp;a detailed study of the history of the problem of the formation of the targeted use of psycholinguistic techniques that can become a tool for expanding the human Consciousness; 2)&nbsp;the expression of constructive criticism of the materialistic theoretical postulates; 3)&nbsp;the formulation (on the basis of criticism, which was discussed in paragraph 2)) of the tasks and prospects for the formation of a Self-Improving Person's Consciousness based on the use of psycholinguistic techniques. <strong>Results.</strong> In accordance with the first research procedure, the author analyzed the works of predecessors (P.&nbsp;Brock, N.&nbsp;Doydzha, C.&nbsp;Wernicke, S.&nbsp;Volinski, F.&nbsp;Gall, A.&nbsp;Luria, P.&nbsp;Bach-i-Rita, D.&nbsp;Plaut, R.&nbsp;Wilson, D.&nbsp;Hebba, B.&nbsp;Arrowsmouth Young), which used psycho-linguistic techniques aimed at the expansion of human consciousness. Within the framework of the second research procedure, the results of the experiments of the above-mentioned authors expressed constructive criticism of the materialistic approach to explaining the use of psycholinguistic methods as one of the optimal means of human self-improvement. Based on the implementation of the third procedure, the author drew attention to a number of trends (approaches) in the implementation of psycholinguistic techniques, which have a wide potential in the use of the ideas of neurogenesis. <strong>Findings</strong>. The author justified the use of psycholinguistic techniques for self-improvement mechanisms of human consciousness using the idea of neurogenesis. In addition to the above, the author has thoroughly studied the history of the problem of forming a targeted use of psycholinguistic techniques that can become a tool for expanding human Consciousness. Constructive criticisms of materialistic and idealistic theoretical tenets are made, and on the basis of criticism, the tasks and perspectives of forming the Consciousness of a self-improving person with the help of psycholinguistic techniques that take into account modern advances in neurogenesis are formulated.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psychosemantic Reconstruction of Health Concepts in Patients with Somatogenia 2019-06-25T15:01:03+03:00 Ksenia Maksymenko Olena Kudermina <p>The article presents the results of study of the subjective psychosemantic space of patients suffering from somatogeny. The construction of a subjective semantic space is fundamentally different from the descriptive researches because it involves an experiment that simulates the certain aspects of linguistic or cognitive activity and allows the reconstruction of the system of values. This is a study of the psychosemantic structure of those semantic structures of consciousness that create a typical conceptual system of self-regulation, forming a normative and actual subjective picture of the own ideas about the health and psychological causes of its violation.</p> <p>On the example of patients with chronic gastroenterological and cardiovascular diseases, the author used the method of semantic differential by Ch. Ozgud with the subsequent factorization of data and has established the basic psycho-semantic parameters of such patients’ consciousness, which allows to understand how people with a certain structure of consciousness fall into the number of patients suffering from psychogeny . The semantic differential method allows us to evaluate the subjective aspect of the meanings associated with content, social settings, stereotypes and other emotionally loaded, structured, and not enough apperceived forms of generalization. The study was conducted in three stages. At the first one was used the adoption of associations. At the second stage was obtained an array of data that represented the result of applying the semantic differential method to the description of the specified categories. The third stage was aimed at working out the received factual data.</p> <p>Through the study, there were obtained the results as three factors. The main factor was called “Score”. The second (partial) bipolar factor absorbed three scales and received the name – antonym to the classical scale of Ch. Osgood “Weakness”. The third (partial) unipolar factor also contains three scales. It received the name “Activity”.</p> <p>The study revealed a number of common features that characterize the partial psychosemantic space of such patients. It was found that the psychosemantic parameters of the psychosemantic space of patients differ by its cognitively-emotional simplicity, low dimensionality, inconsistency and predominance in negative connotations.</p> <p>The psychosemantic structure of consciousness of the patients suffering from psychogeny involves the special efforts of clinical psychologists and psychotherapists in providing targeted psychological support and assistance to such people.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psycholinguistic Characteristics of Secondary Predication in Determining the Construction of a Peculiar Picture of the World of a Reader 2019-06-25T15:00:37+03:00 Nataliya Mykhalchuk Ernest Ivashkevych <p>The article deals with the analysis of psycholinguistic characteristics of explication of secondary predication, which are considered as dominant determinants of constructing a peculiar picture of the world of the reader. It is noted that in the scientific literature predication is categorized as a category that facilitates the constitution of a sentence in the form of a minimal communicative unit, which helps to establish the identity of the content of the sentence and the content of the reality which is surrounding us. It was determined that predication is: a)&nbsp;a category that contains signs of time, modality and personalization; b)&nbsp;a category that is essentially quasi-communicative, that is one that manifests itself in the attitudes of the opposition to themes and rams; c) a category that contains signs of time and modality.</p> <p>In this article the novel of Frederick Forsyth “The Odessa file” was analyzed (according to the structures of secondary predication). This analysis suggests that the largest number of secondary predication structures are components of predication structures: 2137 cases, representing 51.38% of the total (4159 of all structures of secondary predication). This group includes the structures of secondary predication of all five types, but the most frequent are the structures of secondary predication, where the secondary predication is expressed by the adjective: in 35.47%. In addition, it should be noted that the structures of secondary predication with the infinitive are the most frequent of all types of structures of secondary predication and make up 34.82% of the total sample size, that is, almost the third part from all amount of cases. The structures of secondary predication, that are Participle II and the structures of it modification, make up 30.89% of the total. However, in the novel of Frederick Forsyth “The Odessa file” also there are the structures of the secondary predication of all five types. Cases when the structures of secondary predication act as components of the modification structures are the least frequent (only 39.07% of the total), however, this group also includes the structures of secondary predication of all types.</p> <p>It was clarified the concept of secondary predication. We believe that secondary predication is the amplification of features of the sentence, which amplifies the meaning of the sentence to the reality that is surrounding us, thus these structures are facilitating, building the image of the world or a peculiar picture of the world of a reader, the picture which, in turn, will determine the mental scripts, frames and images of this man in the future.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Neuropsychological Principles of Activating the Speech of Children of the Senior Preschool age in the Course of Motor Actions 2019-06-25T15:00:34+03:00 Nataliia Panhelova Tetiana Krutsevych <p>The investigation is devoted to the problem of speech development of children of the senior preschool age in the course of execution of motor actions that needed neuro-psychological basics of speech activation of children during motor actions. The results of the study indicate that preschool age is the most responsible period in the development of the personality of the person, its psychological and physical development, including the development of speech.</p> <p>The presence of the interrelation of general and speech motility has been proved in the studies of I.P.&nbsp;Pavlov, A.M.&nbsp;Leontiev, A.R.&nbsp;Luria etc., which substantiates the position that the use of various motor actions contributes to solving the problems of speech development of the child. The presence of the relationship between intellectual, social, speech development and motor activity, the state of health of the child determines the feasibility of the use of such approaches, which involve an integrated influence to a child’s personality. The exclusive role of physical and speech development determines the need for their integration for the general development of the child. The purpose of the integrated speech-motor joint motor activity is to ensure the interconnection of motor activity and development of speech of children of preschool age. The introduction of an integrated approach requires the use of innovative technologies (finger, articulation, respiratory gymnastics, football-gymnastics, logarithmics, etc.).</p> <p>To test the effectiveness of the integrated speech-motor activity, a pedagogical experiment was conducted. After the survey, data was obtained that shows a positive dynamics in all indicators of speech.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Regulatory and Planning Speech Functions Influence on the Senior Preschoolers’ and Junior Schoolchildren’s Voluntary Development 2019-06-25T15:00:30+03:00 Valentyna Poul Ostap Bodyk <p>The article is based on the idea of studying the growth of the regulatory role of child’s speech in the activity organization and feasance and the conduct of child’s behavior. According to this idea, the child’s volitional behavior arises with the skills appearance to build speech utterances, when youngster begins to draw up a plan of his/her activity and regulate the process of his/her implementation with their help, i.e., the development of planning and regulatory speech functions is in progress.</p> <p>Emphasis is placed just on the problem of forming in children the ability to build utterances on their own in connection with the development of speech functions and their volitional development. It’s given the proof of the interconnection of the stages development of planning and regulatory speech functions in preschool and junior schoolchildren and the conditionality of the volitional development of children by the development of their speech skills and functions.</p> <p>The paper presents a functional-structural model of the development process optimization of planning and regulatory speech functions by children in forming their speech skills. It’s illustrated the structure of the program forming preschoolers’ and first graders’ skills to model speech utterances for their development of planning and regulatory speech functions, the formation of which is considered as one of the their volitional behavior development mechanisms. The effectiveness of this program has been experimentally proved. The results show the substantial children’s speech development changes, the positive will development dynamics, the time history in an interrelation between children’s will and speech development, namely: volitional development was connected with all connected speech indicators at the same time, in preschoolers – mainly with their utterances completeness and logic, in first-graders – with the understanding of the meaning of their own speech in activity.</p> <p>On the basis of the scientists’ theoretical and experimental works and presented empirical research results analysis it’s suggested to assume the senior preschool age as a sensitive for the regulatory speech function development and the junior school age – planning one.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psychological Linguodidactics of Speech Development Activity of Senior School Age Children with Autistic Abnormalities 2019-06-25T14:47:44+03:00 Daria Suprun Maryna Fedorenko <p>Children of senior preschool age with autistic problems have a predominantly low level of speech activity, therefore, the aim of the article is to theoretically substantiate and develop a phased correctional developmental psycholinguodidactic technology of forming speech activity of children determined age by using theoretical (study, analysis and generalization of the theoretical and methodological foundations of the research for determining the state of development of the problem and perspective directions of its study) and empirical (psychological and pedagogical experiment to study the state and features of the development of speech activity of children of senior preschool age with autistic disorders) research methods.</p> <p>The experimental psycholinguodidactic technology contained three stages of work on the problem of speech activity: research-diagnostic, correctional-activity and functional-speech.</p> <p>The emotional contact was established and improved, and the initial level of speech activity was diagnosed at the research-diagnostic stage. Correctional-activity stage consisted in the formation of speech and communication skills, the development of direct speech activity of children of senior preschool age with autistic disorders. The diagnosis and consolidation of the child’s achievements regarding speech activity was provided at the functional-speech stage, as well as the ability to use the acquired speech skills in the process of communication, filling the process of communication with broad interrelations with the environment.</p> <p>The results of the formative experiment confirmed that although children of senior preschool age with autistic disorders did not reach a high level of speech activity, but in the experimental group there were identified children with a sufficient level, the number of children with an average level increased, and the number of children with zero level of speech activity decreased, which confirms the effectiveness of experimental psycholinguodidactic correctional technology.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Continuity of mythologized representations of future and practical teachers 2019-06-25T14:47:41+03:00 Yurii Tyunnikov Marina Maznichenko Tatyana Afanasyeva <p>The article presents the theoretical foundations and results of an experimental study of the peculiarities of the professional consciousness of teachers (future and already working), expressed in their ideas (including mythologized ones) about teaching, the teacher and students as its subjects, and in many respects determining the effectiveness their professional activities. The dynamics and continuity of such ideas at different stages of the professional path are revealed.</p> <p>The purpose of the study – the study of the professional consciousness of teachers, including its mythological component. The purpose of the article is to present the results of psychologic-based methods and methods of research of mythologized ideas of future and practicing teachers as part of their professional consciousness.</p> <p>The theoretical foundations of the study are psycholinguistic theories, revealing the peculiarities of speech production at the textual and pretext levels; psychological theories and empirical studies of the mythological component of the personality consciousness; studies of the teacher’s professional consciousness; the main provisions of pedagogical mythological studies.</p> <p>The results of the empirical research have shown that in the professional consciousness of both practicing teachers and future teachers there are mythologized ideas about the pedagogical reality (about yourself, the profession, students, the pedagogical process, parents, etc.). However, the content (set) and the degree of prevalence of such ideas among students and practicing teachers are different. More similarities are observed among graduate students and practicing teachers: they are characterized by the idealization of the teacher’s image (“A good teacher hides his real feelings from schoolchildren”, “A good teacher answers any question”), an exaggeration of the significance of the methodology (“omnipotent”). Mythological constructs of first-year students and practicing teachers differ significantly: first-year students are characterized by negative perceptions of the profession (“Teacher’s work is continuous hassle, martyrdom”), students (“Modern children don’t want to learn”), practically not occurring in practicing educators and much less common in graduate students.</p> <p>The results obtained allow us to understand how scientific and pedagogical knowledge is comprehended by a teacher, why certain scientific theories do not find practical application, what else, in addition to scientific knowledge, is the teacher guided, designing pedagogical interaction, why he chooses certain strategies of pedagogical education? whether strategies based on extra-scientific knowledge or on a complex of scientific and extra-scientific knowledge can be effective, how and why attitudes to future pedagogical reality, beginners and Mature teachers, like the teacher himself or the teacher of a higher educational institution, mentor, or methodologist can strengthen the constructive and reduce the destructive influence of myths on the teacher’s professional consciousness.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psycholinguistic Meaning of the Concept of “Faith” 2019-06-25T14:47:38+03:00 Tamara Khomulenko Oleksiy Kuznetsov <p>The article presents the results of a free associative experiment aimed at studying the verbalized concept of “faith” in the ordinary linguistic consciousness. The sample consisted of 487 people, speakers both of Russian and Ukrainian languages (15-67 years old) in an equal ratio of male and female. The article provides an analysis of the frequencies of the first reaction to the word-stimulus “faith” and the five reactions together, and the results of the clustering of high-frequency associations. The psycholinguistic meaning of the concept of faith was considered by us as an ordered unity of all the semantic components of the lexeme “faith”, which are really connected with this sound form in the consciousness of the speakers of the Russian and Ukrainian languages. The study showed that the concept of “faith” is expressed in the nuclear psycholinguistic meaning “hope”. The results of the experiment suggest that the associative field of the concept “faith” is represented by theological (religious) and moral semes, reflected in the peripheral psycholinguistic meanings – “love”, “religion”, “God”, “church” and many other meanings of the extreme periphery. It was shown that faith represents the “female name”, which acts as a detotat of females, which also explains the high frequency of personalized reactions. The etymological analysis of the lexeme “faith” allowed us to correlate the primary meanings of this concept with its meanings in the content of the modern ordinary consciousness and to conclude that some of the original meanings of faith remained (“trust”, “confidence”, “oath”, “verity”, “religion”, “deity”), and some of the meanings have been lost. In general, our results are confirmed in the works of both foreign and domestic scientists devoted to the analysis and description of the concept of “faith”, which is characterized by several semantic levels, ambivalence, high-frequency associates of theological and moral semantics, the presence of metaphorical and emotive values.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Discursive Technologies of Self-Designing Personality 2019-06-25T14:47:23+03:00 Natalia Chepeleva Svitlana Rudnytska <p>The article presents and analyzes a three-level model of a self-designing personality (“plagiarist”, “reader”, “author”) and describes the psychological characteristics of the subject of self-designing on each of them. In the optics of the psycho-hermeneutic approach, the conception of discursive technology as a communicative- and -semiotic process is proposed. The process provides storage, accumulation, transformation, translation and retranslation of the value-semantic resource incorporated into certain sign-symbolic forms, in particular, in a wide range of sociocultural and personal texts. It is shown that discursive technologies at each of the selected self-designing levels have an expressed specificity, due to the methods of the individual experience organizing, the text objectification of this experience, sense-formation strategies and understanding procedures. The basic discursive technology at the level of "plagiarist" is the statement. The technology of transition to the “reader” level is an informational dialogue, in the process of which the topic of statements is explicated, which, in turn, starts the process of structuring, framing the individual “vital material” and creating narrative constructs. The narrative becomes the main discursive technology of the personality at the “reader” level. To go to the optional “author” level a personality has to master the technology of semantic dialogue, during which the creation of auto-narratives takes place. At the “author” level, thanks to a certain value-semantic “logic” of the auto-narratives integration into a single semantic whole, a personality vital product is born. The leitmotif appears the backbone of the product, as well as the means of navigation of the personality within it. It is generalized that the discursive technologies of personality self-designing are directed to the thematic organization of life situations at the “plagiarist” level; the space-and-time and cause-and-effect structuring of life events at the “reader” level; value- and-semantic integration of the life history at the “author” level.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psychosemantic Peculiarities of Promotional Videos Perception 2019-06-25T14:47:19+03:00 Anzhelika Shamne Tamiliia Dotsevych Alina Akimova <p>The article presents the findings of a study of the psycho-semantic characteristics of the perception of promotional videos in the juvenile and adolescent age periods (as exemplified by the students of a lyceum and those of an institution of higher education in Ukraine). The modern advertising is seen as a societal and socio-psychological phenomenon that models not only the behavior but also the values, standards and mindsets of the younger generation. The scientific principles of the experimental psycho-semantics became the methodological basis for the empirical research in question. The purpose of the research was to reconstruct semantic spaces and an individual system of meanings, through the prism of which advertisements are perceived by juveniles and adolescents of both genders.</p> <p>The psycho-semantic research was carried out in three stages: scaling of advertising objects (on the basis of the semantic differential method), the construction of semantic spaces of promotional videos and the interpretation of the results obtained. Five promotional videos of different types were selected as the evaluation objects (an “Otrivin” animation video with computer graphics and special effects; a “Pantene” actor-supported voice-over music video; a “Hylak Forte” voice-over information-type video; a “Samsung” celebrity figure-supported video; a “Raiffeisenbank” storyline actor-supported voice-over music video). A comparative analysis of the psycho-semantic spaces of the above-mentioned objects was performed; the age and gender characteristics of their perception in the juvenile and adolescent age periods were determined.</p> <p>The following factors were identified as the main semantic axes of the psycho-semantic perception (as exemplified by the “Raiffeisenbank” promotional video): “Confidence in (distrust of) advertising” (SD indicators “true – false”, “informative – less informative”, “intelligent – stupid”); “Emotional attractiveness (unattractiveness) of advertising” (SD indicators “attractive – repulsive”, “joyful – sad”; “Tactfulness (obtrusiveness) of advertising” (SD indicators “relaxed – tense”, “modest – obtrusive”, “interesting – boring”).</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nickname as a Means of Linguistic Self-Presentation in the Internet of People with Eating Disorders 2019-06-25T14:47:17+03:00 Vitaliia Shebanova Tetiana Yablonska <p>The article analyzes the peculiarities of language self-presentation of Internet users. The results of the study of nicknames as means of linguistic self-presentation of persons with eating disorders in the specialized Internet forums are presented.</p> <p>The psychological analysis of users’ nicknames of sites of anorexic and overweight individuals is presented which gives an opportunity to assert that nicknames reflect the specific nutritional problem and self-administration of a person in connection with it. The predominance of the female audience of such sites is revealed and hence the greater urgency of the problem of standards of the body for women. In the process of analysis, on the basis of psycholinguistic and projective approaches, the main categories of nicknames are singled out: exo-decorative names; metaphorical, decorative and mysterious nicknames; mythical and fantasy characters; destructive, problem image; names that reflect the physical status, etc.</p> <p>It has been established that nicknames as attributes of linguistic self-presentation of users of specialized forums, is a symbolic projection of the discourse of their existence and reveals the features of real or desired body parameters; dissatisfaction with weight, with your body, yourself and life in general; fixation on the issue of nutrition and weight reduction; the desire to be fenced off from reality. Differences in the linguistic self-presentation of anorexics and overweight individuals are revealed, in particular, a more positive modality of self-presentation of overweight individuals; the representation of various categories of linguistic self-presentation in these groups which allows to assert the difference in the mechanisms of psychological protection in these groups of users. The analysis of the features of nicknames as a means of linguistic self-presentation is useful both for the purpose of psychodiagnostics of people with eating disorders, as well as in the process of developing and providing them with psychological assistance.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Natural Language Understanding: Methodological Conceptualization 2019-06-25T14:46:15+03:00 Vitalii Shymko <p>This article contains the results of a theoretical analysis of the phenomenon of natural language understanding (NLU), as a methodological problem. The combination of structural-ontological and informational-psychological approaches provided an opportunity to describe the subject matter field of NLU, as a composite function of the mind, which systemically combines the verbal and discursive structural layers. In particular, the idea of NLU is presented, on the one hand, as the relation between the discourse of a specific speech message and the meta-discourse of a language, in turn, activated by the need-motivational factors. On the other hand, it is conceptualized as a process with a specific structure of information metabolism, the study of which implies the necessity to differentiate the affective (emotional) and need-motivational influences on the NLU, as well as to take into account their interaction. At the same time, the hypothesis about the influence of needs on NLU under the scenario similar to the pattern of Yerkes-Dodson is argued. And the theoretical conclusion that emotions fulfill the function of the operator of the structural features of the information metabolism of NLU is substantiated. Thus, depending on the modality of emotions in the process of NLU, it was proposed to distinguish two scenarios for the implementation of information metabolism - reduction and synthetic. The argument in favor of the conclusion about the productive and constitutive role of emotions in the process of NLU is also given.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Probing into Native and Nonnative Students’ Mental Lexicon: a Case of Word Association Comparison 2019-06-25T14:46:12+03:00 Afrooz Marzban Mohammad Sadegh Bagheri Firooz Sadighi Ehsan Rassaei <p>The present study compared British English speakers’ (native) and Iranian EFL learners’ (nonnative) mental lexicon structure focusing on how words are selected and used by the two groups. The types of word association links, syntagmatic and paradigmatic, more frequently applied by the two groups of the participants, were probed into. To this end, 40 native and 40 nonnative college students, both male and female, were compared as far as mental lexicon was concerned. Accordingly, through the Oxford Placement Test (OPT), the nonnative subjects were assigned to three ability levels; namely, high, mid and low. Next, the Word Association Test (WAT) was administered respectively to all native and nonnative participants. The comparison of the WAT results through a series of Chi-square tests and a test of Mann-Whitney indicated that the employed word association links varied among the native and nonnative participants. The findings revealed that the low and mid level nonnatives which comprised a majority of Iranian EFL learners employed the syntagmatic relation to a greater extent than the high level nonnatives. However, only one resemblance was observed between the natives and the high level nonnatives who frequently applied the paradigmatic link. Thus, it was concluded that the advanced Iranian learners performed in a similar way as that of the native English speakers; as a result, it was suggested that the improvement in the proficiency level could lead to a change in making mental links. The findings would contribute to the psychological concerns in language teaching and learning in most academic contexts of higher age ranges.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Family vs Discourse 2019-06-25T14:46:09+03:00 Oxana Brovkina Svitlana Baranova <p>The article presents the investigation of the main communicative characteristics of the English family discourse considering some psycholinguistic aspects. The investigation was based on the discourse fragments which were microdialogues between family members selected from literary works of the XX – beginning of the XXI century by means of continuous sampling. The scientists’ views concerning the peculiarities of communication in the family were analyzed. The research is theoretically based on the modern linguistic approaches to the study of the discourse as a complex versatile phenomenon.</p> <p>The article treats the family discourse as the communicative interaction of the speakers related by family (marital and consanguineous) ties, connected spiritually, by common household and mutual moral responsibility. It is found out that the discourse under investigation is characterized by such communicative characteristics as dialogicality, addressability, spontaneity, situationality, everyday character and informality. The communication in the family acquires a dialogical form. The interaction takes place through the direct contact of the speakers that are keenly conscious of the circumstances in which the communication proceeds. The content of the family dialogical speech can be understood when the situation in which it is developing is considered. There is a distinct correlation between the dialogical speech and the situation whose external circumstances can be absent at the moment of speech, but they are implied in the interlocutors’ consciousness and definitely reflected in it. Speech behaviour of each dialogue participant is greatly determined by partner’s speech behaviour, his/her psychological state, character and breeding. The interaction of the relatives displays the absence of the strict regulation of literary norms, arbitrary choice of lexical units, breach of normative speech rules, use of deictic means. The necessity to study the family discourse regarding a communicative situation that presupposes the notions of dominating strategy and tactics is focused on.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Language Changes in Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease 2019-06-25T14:45:52+03:00 Eda Can Gülmira Kuruoğlu <p>Alzheimer’ s disease (AD) is the most common cause of cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly. Language disturbances appear early in AD and constitute an important element of the diagnosis, although they are usually overshadowed by impairment of memory and executive functions. It is known that language is impaired disproportionally in AD: the semantic and pragmatic language systems are more impaired than syntax. However, syntactic features can also be impaired in the moderate and severe stages of AD. The features of language can be different depending on the onset of AD. AD is classified into two subtypes: early-onset (before 65 years of age) and late-onset (over 65 years of age). Late-onset is the most common form of AD and the aim of this study is to reveal the language changes of 39 patients with late-onset AD and compare it with an age/education-matched control group that has no neurological and psychological problems. The data was transcribed using transcript symbols following Du Bois. The results revealed that although the number of the sentences were more, the speech amount of late-onset AD patients was smaller than the control group. Late-onset AD patients mostly produced sentences in “Picnic” picture description test and fewer sentences in random speech test. Moreover, the sentence length of LAD patients was bigger in “Cookie theft” picture description test and smaller in “Picnic” picture description test. However, their general performance about the speech amount was poor. The other findings were about the coordinated and compound sentences. It was revealed that late-onset AD patients used similar number of coordinated and compound sentences compared to their aged matched peers. In conclusion, it is clear that the syntactic features of LAD patients is not completely different from the people with normail aging.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Associative Support in the Process of Learning Vocabulary of a Foreign Language: a Psycholinguistic Approach in Language Teaching 2019-06-25T14:45:50+03:00 Оlga Klimkina <p>The subject of the article is description of the reserves for improving the efficiency of teaching foreign language vocabulary. The identification of effective strategies for mastering new words and supporting elements used in this case has been carried out taking into account the psycholinguistic theory of bilingualism as a basis for improving the theory and practice of teaching foreign languages. The illustrative part is presented by materials of the Russian lessons for students with native Turkish language.</p> <p>The support is defined as a sign getting into the focus of attention and directing the search in the previous experience of the individual. Associative supports help the implementation of Association strategy in the process of memorizing a foreign word. It is suggested that if associative supports («keys» in terms of techniques) are offered at the same time with the introduction of a new verbal unit for its memorization, it will accelerate the capture of sound and graphic image of the word, ensure its introduction into long-term memory, enhance storage, simplify search and reproduction.</p> <p>In order to optimize the memorization of lexical material, it is proposed to use: support on the morphemic component («familiar» roots in borrowings); support on the same sound-letter complex (interlingual homonyms); support on the language of personal meanings (etymological adaptation of the word); support on the pragmatic component (emotional-evaluative connotations of the word); support on a similar sound-letter complex («phonetic keys»); support on the grammatical analogy in the native language («positive transfer»); support on the previously formed speech skill.</p> <p>The application of the strategy of association while learning vocabulary of a foreign language helps to mobilize internal resources of the memory, and is a condition for optimization of the learning process and a factor in the successful accumulation of vocabulary. The more different associative supports are involved in the process of learning a new word, the faster the memorization and the stronger the result will be.</p> <p>Further methodological search in the framework of the lexical approach to language learning should be aimed at improving the teaching materials taking into account the associative principle and, in the long term, the creation of a «psycholinguistic version» of the methodological typology of vocabulary, taking into account the features of speech activity of students to learn different types of words.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Psycholinguistic Aspects of Reproducing the Chinese Military and Political Discourse in Ukrainian 2019-06-25T14:45:47+03:00 Tetiana Korolova Oleksandra Popova <p>The article is aimed at studying psycholinguistic issues regarding the interpretation variability and linguocultural accommodation of conceptual basis representing the determinants of the Chinese military and political discourse by the Ukrainians. The topicality is stipulated by great interest of the scientists in the fields of psycholinguistics, linguistic culturology, translation studies as to the semantic content within the view of the world displayed by ethnic groups from The Orient. The determinants of the Chinese military and political discourse (discourse, concept, concept sphere, linguistic component, extra-linguistic component) are specified in the article. The Chinese-language military-political discourse is understood as a totality of verbalized oral and written texts created in the context of the politics-oriented communication; ideographic and symbolic embodiment of the national concept sphere, which is governed by the national and culture-centric tactical and strategic vectors of the conflict-free interaction performed by communicants in the spheres of politics, economy, military-industry, international relations. The linguistic phenomena enable the Chinese military and political discourse to be actualized as well as the means of their reproduction in the Ukrainian language [replication (equivalent translation), transliteration, transcoding, descriptive translation, commentary; the communication-equal translation strategy; the redirection strategy where cultural and linguistic adaptations are applied]. The prospects of our further research are seen in the study of tactical and strategic vectors which may determine the peculiarities of reproducing the syntactic component of the discourse under study into the Ukrainian language.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The Intersemiosis of Negative Emotions in the Cinematic Discourse: a Psycholinguistic Perspective 2019-06-25T14:45:26+03:00 Tetiana Krysanova Iryna Shevchenko <p>This study of the psycholinguistic properties of negative emotions in the English cinematic feature discourse focuses on the establishment of their intersemiosis – the simultaneous multimodal construction of emotional meanings by means of heterogeneous sign systems. The means of meaning construction in the cinematic discourse include linguistic, non-linguistic (prosody, kinesics, etc.) and extra-linguistic (music and kineikonic means), and different modes – acoustic and visual channels for transmitting meanings. The main psycholinguistic properties of cinematic emotions are their inextricable connection with the physiological processes, rootedness in the common human embodied experience, motivational basis; emotions are read as the result of an assessment of the satisfaction degree of individuals’ needs. The construction of emotional meanings in the cinematic discourse is the result of the interaction between the real world of the film makers and the imaginary world of the action. In constructing negative emotional meanings in general and emotions of fear and anger, in particular, the collective author of the cinematic discourse uses different semiotic codes in a parity or non-parity way. In the first case, heterogeneous semiotic codes both serve to denote fear or anger, while in the second, advantage is given to one of heterogeneous codes – linguistic, non- linguistic, and extra-linguistic. Consequently, this leads to the domination of one of the modes of transmitting meanings to the collective viewer – acoustic or visual. According to the coherence parameter of the emotional meaning embodied by various means of the semiosis of fear or anger, individual episodes of the English cinematic feature discourse are either congruent or non-congruent. Being congruent, different codes simultaneously transmit the same emotional meaning; being incongruent, heterogeneous semiotic codes actualize different emotional meanings, which leads to higher expressiveness of such emotions and their more effective influence on the viewer.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019