PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Psycholinguistics Journal publishes refereed articles dealing with psychological, anthropological, linguistic, social communication and psychodidactic aspects of psycholinguistics Hryhorii Skovoroda University in Pereiaslav (Ukraine) en-US PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2309-1797 Socio-Psycholinguistic Features of ‘till’/‘until’ Functioning in Present-Day English (Corpus-Based and Corpus-Driven Research) <p><strong><em>The aim of the research</em></strong><em>. The paper is to clarify the role of socio-psycholinguistic factors of lexical units ‘till’/‘until’ functioning in present-day English. The research is focused on the lexical units ‘till’/‘until’, which are the objects of functional transposition, as a result of which both units are determined and function as prepositions and conjunctions, are defined by the identical vocabulary definitions, derive from the same part of speech – preposition and undergo functional transposition into the category of conjunction. Nevertheless, they are characterized by a diverse level of institutionalization in the language, what is proved by the statistical data. Therefore we put forward the hypothesis that the divergences in applying the units depend on the socio-psycholinguistic factors, which characterize the speech at the present stage of the language development and determine the institutionalization level of any transpositional process.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>. </em><em>The analysis is represented by the corpus-based and corpus-driven research and is grounded on the data, retrieved from the British National Corpus (BNC) as the most balanced and representative source of written and oral extracts of the English language. Under the research, socio-psycholinguistic factors are divided into linguistic, viz. </em><em>discourse type, text type, derived text type, text domain, context-governed text domain and type of interaction, the level of difficulty, and socio-psychological factors, viz. age and gender of an author (for written discourse), age, gender, and social class of a speaker and respondent (for spoken discourse).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results and conclusion</em></strong><em>.</em> <em>The obtained data testify that there are almost no difference between the preposition and conjunction ‘till’, except for the authors’ and speakers’ age. The figures of the categories prove the further expansion of the preposition ‘till’. The preposition and conjunction ‘until’ are characterized by more profound divergences, in particular, on the side of linguistic factors. Taking into account the fact that socio-psychological factors determine the linguistic peculiarities of the language units in discourse, it is worth stating that the preposition ‘until’ is characterized by the lowest number of points of intersection with other units under study, which predetermines its potential for further analysis from the perspective of modern psycholinguistics.</em></p> Yurii Kovbasko Lesya Ikalyuk Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-11-09 2021-11-09 30 2 Predicting EFL Learners’ Susceptibility to Various Disfluency Types Based on Gender and Age <p><em>The <strong>aim</strong> of the current study is to investigate the relationship of production of speech disfluencies in EFL learners based on gender and age through regression modeling. Gender and age have been examined to influence the production of disfluencies in both native and nonnative speakers so it’s an important issue since fluency and disfluency are crucial aspects of language learning, however, the influence of age and gender on disfluency remains a controversial issue with studies often producing conflicting results with one another. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>This study took a new approach to this subject as we produced regression models which can predict the likelihood of production of each disfluency type based on speakers’ age and gender. In order to do this 40 Iranian advanced EFL learners (20 male, 20 female) in four age groups (youth 19–24, young adults 25–30, adults 31–44, and older adults 45+) took part in the study. Later semi-structured interviews with a variety of questions regarding different topics were conducted and participants’ responses were first recorded and then transcribed. The frequency of occurrence of each disfluency type in participants’ speech samples formed our data. This data was then used for our regression analysis. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong> <em>Our findings indicated that, while filled pauses are the most frequently produced disfluency in both genders and all age groups, female speakers are more likely to produce hesitations in their speech compared to male speakers. We also found out that, older adults are less likely to produce filled pauses in their speech compared to younger speakers. With Further analyses, we also investigated the likelihood of producing certain disfluency types over other ones based on age and gender and how this may help instructors.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>.</em> <em>Based on our findings, it can be concluded that all six types of disfluencies are produced by the Iranian EFL learners. Also, we found that, filled pauses, hesitations, and repetitions are by far the most frequently produced disfluency types by Iranian EFL learners, respectively.</em></p> Amirmahdi Minavandchal Mahmood Salimi Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-11-09 2021-11-09 30 2 Psycholinguistic Potential of Political Concepts of the Election Campaign (on the example of the slogan-motto “Army. Language. Faith”) <p><strong><em>The aim</em></strong><em> of the study is a psycholinguistic analysis of the stimulus words (Ukrainian) army, language, faith as concept-forming nominations of the appropriate text concepts in the structure of the slogan-motto (advertising slogan, political slogan) “Army. Language. Faith.” the 2019 election campaign (that is, in the context of a particular discursive practice).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods of the research.</em></strong><em> The application of the method of free associative experiment basing on the theory of speech influence allows to interpret the semantics of the analyzed concepts, as well as to establish their closest connections and logical relationships with other concepts. Verbal reactions to a political slogan as a whole and to its individual structural units as concept-forming nominations are interpreted as verbal representations of cognitive features of concepts.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results of the associative experiment are a relevant source of data in order to identify markers of the deep (including subconscious) mechanisms of verbal and non-verbal behavior of individuals, which can be used to form new and transform old political concepts. The presence of intersecting segments in their semantic fields testifies about the partial synthesis of diverse concepts in the recipients’ minds, in which the effect of the psycholinguistic influence of the slogan-motto is increased. The absence of such an intersection is an indicator of the information the general information field of the concepts, which is expressed in the discrete perception of the advertising slogan.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>. In the context of the speech theory influence, the first two stages of implementation the text slogan-motto “Army. Language. Faith.” into mass consciousness (attracting attention to the text and optimization its perception) were successfully implemented. A number of reasons (extralinguistic and linguistic formation, for example, the use of words with abstract, non-specific semantics “language”, “faith”) complicated the implementation of the third stage (acceptance of the content) of the implication of the text. Concept-forming nomination “army”, potentially containing negative semantic components, caused reactions associated with the emergency of cognitive disbalance in the consciousness of individuals. Comparison of the associates of the two stages of the experiment showed that the context of perception of the stimulus words is important for the respondents. Thus, the evaluative connotations of reaction words (in particular, concerning the nomination “army”) in the context of the advertising campaign of P.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Poroshenko’s party and outside this context differ significantly.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Natalia Koch Svitlana Kaleniuk Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-11-09 2021-11-09 30 2 A Linguistic Profile of Narrative Speech in Early and Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease <p><strong><em>Objective.</em></strong><em> Alzheimer’s Dementia is defined as multiple impairments in cognitive functions and language impairment is one of the observed problems in this disease. In order to analyse these problems, narrative speech transcriptions of Turkish patients with early and late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) </em><em>and an age/education-matched control group </em><em>were examined.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials &amp; Methods.</em></strong><em> B</em><em>y using different language tests, the sentence production of Turkish patients with early (n: 23) and late-onset (n: 39) was examined and the results were compared within groups and within language tests. Our aim was to reveal the differences in sentence processing of Turkish Alzheimer patients. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. According to the results, Turkish Alzheimer patients use short and simple sentences composed of fewer words in their speech. It was determined that these patients performed better in Picnic Picture Description test, which is thought to be easy to describe. In Cookie Theft Picture Description test, which is a complex one, and in the Subject-based Narration test, it was found that the speech amounts of AD patients were less. It was revealed that early-onset AD patients used shorter sentences including fewer words compared to late-onset AD patients. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion. </em></strong><em>In the light of the data obtained, it can be said that AD patients have different sentence processing than normal individuals because of the problems in the language and memory areas of the disease. The fact that sentence processing is different means that these patients do not prefer the types of sentences that normal individuals prefer in their speeches, and use less words and simpler sentences.</em></p> Eda Can Gülmira Kuruoğlu Copyright (c) 2021-11-09 2021-11-09 30 2 Post-Editing as the Means to Activate Students’ Thinking and Analytical Process: Psycholinguistic Aspects <p><em>The <strong>aim of the research </strong>is</em> <em>looking for the ways to intensify the future translators’ analytical and thinking activity during their independent work in online teaching. The author strives to achieve it through the combination of post-editing machine-translated texts and the Think</em><em>-</em><em>aloud</em> <em>protocol procedure. It is also</em> <em>assumed that this combination reduces the students’ dependence on the MT target text structure, as well as improves their competence in translating specialized texts.</em></p> <p><em>The <strong>methodology</strong> of research involved experimental post-editing-based online teaching (28 contact hours and 92 hours of independent work) of an elective university course ‘Specifics of translating English-language discourse in the domain of Psychology’ to the first-year MA students (majoring in English and Translation) whose command of English ranged from C1 to C2 levels in the CEFR classification. The parameters of analysis included the percentage of the students’ uploaded home tasks, the degree</em><em> of the subjects’ post-editing intensity in their weekly homework, the </em><em>students’</em><em> independence in the interim and final tests,</em><em> as well as the marks in the </em><em>Final test. </em></p> <p><em>The <strong>results</strong> of the analysis demonstrated a substantial difference between various groups of the subjects by all indicators. </em><em>The amount of home tasks uploaded by the subjects in groups A and B (with more intensive analytical and thinking activity) exceeds the similar parameter in groups C and D (with less intensive activity) more than twofold. There is a considerable advantage </em><em>of the groups A and B (and even C) subjects’ post-editing intensity in their weekly homework as compared to group D. The intensity</em><em> of the students’ analytical and thinking activity decreased from the highest (group A) to moderately high (group B) to average (group C) and to low (group D). The degree</em><em> of the </em><em>students’</em><em> independence in the interim and final tests </em><em>decreased from 85.0% (group A) to 35.0% in group D, with the remaining groups’ indicators in between – 59.0% (group B) and 46.0% (group C). These indicators clearly correlate with the average marks in the final test, which amounted to </em><em>93.80</em><em>,</em><em> 63 </em><em>and</em><em> 53</em><em> points (out of 100) in groups </em><em>А</em><em>,</em><em> В</em><em>,</em> <em>C</em> <em>and D respectively. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. Post-editing, in combination with the modified TAP procedure, contributes to the efficient development of the specialized texts translation competence due to the intensification of the students’ analytical and thinking activity, reduces their dependence on the MT target text structure and correlates with the improvement of the overall quality of their translation. </em></p> Leonid Chernovaty Natalia Kovalchuk Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 30 2 Communicative Tolerance vs Communicative Intolerance as a Generative Problem <p><strong><em>Introduction.</em></strong><em> In the article the results of the evaluation of modern research on communicative tolerance (CT) and communicative intolerance (CI) of socionomic professions are discussed from the standpoint of the postulates and provisions of psycholinguistics. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Purpose. </em></strong><em>The purpose</em> <em>of the article is: </em><em>(</em><em>a)</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>to discuss the results of a systematic review and systematic evaluation of modern research on CT, which presents the scientific views of scientists from around the world on this issue; </em><em>(</em><em>b)</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>identification how much in studies that, by their name, claim to solve the CT problem, is really revealed the speech-language aspect of communication, which belongs to the competence of psycholinguistics and serves its further development as an applied science. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and Techniques</em></strong><em>. In the process of monitoring modern research on this issue it was used a set of theoretical methods: (a)&nbsp;a systematic review and systematic analysis of publications published in journals included in the “Scopus” and “Web of Science”; (b)&nbsp;classification of analyzed studies; (c)&nbsp;systematization of the received qualitative indicators and generalization of the results of inspection and the analysis; (d)&nbsp;research synthesis and formulation of conclusions. The concept of the study contains a number of psycholinguistic provisions that illuminate the author’s understanding of the observed phenomena, reveals the methodological approaches on which the methodology of this investigation is based, and provides research actions on heuristic, analytical and evaluation algorithms. According to the specified algorithms the research technique is realized on stages: (1)&nbsp;search; (2)&nbsp;selective; (3) analytical; (4)&nbsp;classification; (5)&nbsp;system-forming; (6)&nbsp;evaluative; (7) generalizing and synthesizing. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results of the research cover different approaches of researchers to CT and CI, the opinion of the authors of this article on the relevance&nbsp;/&nbsp;irrelevance of the performed investigations to communication issues, expediency&nbsp;/&nbsp;inexpediency of the research procedures, summarizes the results of analysis and provided evaluation, presents discussion provisions on misidentification by the individual scientists of communication and interaction, communication and intercourse.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> Carried out a systematic review and systematic analysis allowed: (a)&nbsp;critically, according to the objective scientific (qualitative) data to assess modern research on CT&nbsp;/&nbsp;CI as those that illegally and unreasonably interpret communication as interaction, without resorting to its inherent psycholinguistic features; (b)&nbsp;to present one’s own scientific understanding of CT&nbsp;/&nbsp;CI as psycholinguistic phenomena and to define the corresponding concepts. The identification of communication with iteration (a component of communication) causes non-terminological use of the terms “communicative tolerance&nbsp;/&nbsp;communicative intolerance”, terminological disorder, substitution of concepts, shift of emphasis in empirical investigations of communication towards another subject of the research. </em></p> Heorhii Kalmykov Stefaniya Dobroskok Diana Chyzhma Irina Endeberia Oksana Kyhtuik Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 30 2 26 58 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-26-58 Lesya Ukrainka's Poetry in Chinese Translation: Psycholinguistic Aspect <p><strong><em>Aim of the study.</em></strong><em> On the basis of the theories of dynamic translation, determine the degree of correspondence between the psycho-cognitive reactions of Ukrainian and Chinese recipients to the original and translated texts of the poetry-cycle of Lesya Ukrainian </em><em>“</em><em>Tears-Pearls</em><em>”</em><em>. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Research methods.</em></strong><em> Psycholinguistic methods of empirical research are basic in this article: Osgood</em><em>’</em><em>s semantic differential method, content analysis and free associative experiment, other linguistic methods (cognitive and semantic analysis) and general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, description and classification of linguistic facts) are also used.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> On the basis of previous theoretical studies, the essential characteristics of translation as a psycho-cognitive process have been established. It is argued that the degree of equivalence of the translation of a literary text is determined not only by the work of the translator, but also by the emotional-evaluative reaction of the target recipients. An important thesis is that the perception of the text (original and translation) is influenced by the interhemispheric asymmetry of the mental activity of speakers of different languages (</em><em>Clark &amp; Paivio</em><em>, 1991; Fenollosa</em><em>, 1968;</em><em> Zasyekin</em><em>, 2010</em><em>). Empirical research has shown that the </em><em>“</em><em>right-brain</em><em>”</em><em> imaginative thinking of the Chinese partly determines the degree of equivalence of their perception of the translation of Lesya Ukrainka</em><em>’</em><em>s poetry. The semantic profiles showed a fairly neutral emotional and evaluative reaction of the Chinese to translation incentives, which, in our opinion, was conditioned by the ethnonational specifics of the original text and the difference in poetic traditions. Despite the preservation of the thematic categories of the original in translation, in the new (Chinese) semantic space, these categories partly acquired other sociocultural meanings, which significantly influenced the equivalence of the translation.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The degree of conformity of the psycho-cognitive reaction of target recipients to the original and the translation is determined not only by the type of mental activity of speakers of different languages, but also by a number of extralinguistic factors that determine the formation and state of activity of the verbal-associative network of representatives of different nations.</em></p> Natalia Isaeva Alina Akimova Anastasiya Akimova Svitlana Chernyshova Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 30 2 Graffiti Inside Jordanian Public Transport Vehicles <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong><em> The study reported here aims to investigate the commonest communicative categories and subcategories of graffiti written inside Jordanian public transport vehicles. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> The researchers collected 1,410 tokens of graffiti from six Jordanian cities, viz., </em><em>Amman, Madaba, Irbid, Zarqa, Salt, and Jerash. The data which were </em><em>collected </em><em>from public transport vehicles included 1000 handwritten graffiti tokens and 410 custom-made stickers. Specifically, the data were collected from large and small buses as well as service and yellow taxis that lined up in main bus stations and bus stops available in front of hospitals, universities, malls</em><em> and close to traffic circles.</em><em> Then the categories and subcategories of graffiti were identified on the basis of their content.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The analysis reveals eight communicative categories, viz., personal, interpersonal, philosophical, religious, offensive, political, humorous, and sports. </em></p> <p><em>The analysis also reveals thirteen subcategories, viz., naming and self-identification, self-appraisal, love and familial relationships, philosophical perspectives, ethics of transport, decline of morals, expressions of Islamic faith, supplication, preaches, protection from the envious eye, territorial and tribal affiliation. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em> The study concludes that a host of societal concerns and individuals’ feelings and thoughts are transmitted through the discourse of graffiti. The passengers and drivers have expressed their self-concentration, philosophical views, affiliation with territories and tribes, hostility and anger to individuals and groups, and allegiance to religion beliefs and traditions. The study also concludes that there </em><em>are socio-psychological motives that drive writing graffiti, viz., </em><em>identify oneself, release emotions, </em><em>criticize individuals and groups, reveal pride and admiration, </em><em>advertise goods and promote business</em><em>, search for contacts, </em><em>post messages for the public</em><em>, express attachment to educational institutions, document </em><em>the occurrence of a particular occasion</em><em>. The study recommends that </em><em>graffiti written inside public transport vehicles in other Arab countries be examined. Thus, one could examine to what extent the communicative categories and subcategories of graffiti along with its socio-psychological tend to show a pan-Arab base.</em></p> Ghada Al Karazoun Jihad M. Hamdan Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-11-04 2021-11-04 30 2 Analysis of Posters for Informing the Population via Social Media during Covid-19: Ukrainian Network <p><strong><em>Objective. </em></strong><em>This study aims to determine the extent to which psycholinguistic variables are included in the analysis of the quality of directive posters on social media during Covid-19. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods. </em></strong><em>The methods used in the study include </em><em>analysis of the relevant scientific literature on the identification of psycholinguistic categories and variables relevant to the study; expert assessment of qualitative parameters of posters published on Facebook by official organizations; methods of descriptive statistics. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>The analysis of 298 unique works conducted through Ukrainian network on Facebook revealed that the overall average quality of the publications is on the borderline between medium and high levels – 69.3% (by text parameters – 70.0%, graphic parameters – 68.6%).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>The study revealed that </em><em>psycholinguistic variables such as readability, imageability, concreteness, conceptual familiarity, semantic size, name agreement, image agreement, visual complexity, typicality, image variability, authenticity of texts, processing fluency, etc. penetrate deeply related research on the creolized texts in various forms and interpretations. The quality of the posters on Facebook made by the official institutions operating in the field of health care is at the borderline between medium and high levels. These indicators are most in need of improvement on text parameters such as “Emphasis” and “Call to action”, as well as on graphical parameters such as “Presence of interactive graphic links” and “Understandability of illustration message without text”.</em></p> Daniil Shmatkov María Luisa Zagalaz-Sánchez Javier Cachón-Zagalaz Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-30 2021-10-30 30 2 249 273 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-249-273 Features of Non-Reflexive Self-Texts of Students-Psychologists <p><strong><em>Objective </em></strong><em>of the research is to identify and analyze the features of non-reflexive self-texts of students-psychologists.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods. </em></strong><em>N&nbsp;=</em><em>&nbsp;79 students-psychologists (47 females and 32 males, average age is 21.9). Author's technique “Non-reflexive self-text” focuses on the creation of self-texts without reliance on rational-reflexive skills. Frequency analysis of parts of speech, logical coherence index, Trager coefficient, definiteness of action coefficient, aggressiveness coefficient, content analysis for determining thematic and figurative content of texts, and frequency analysis of autological and metalogical means of verbalization of figurative associations are used. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> Non-reflexive self-text is defined as a text which is created mainly in the reduced phase of internal speech with the verbalization of the self-concept with relatively little participation of reflexive processes. Common and different psycholinguistic and meaningful psychological parameters of students-civilian psychologists’ and students-military psychologists’ groups as well as male and female parts of groups are determined. Non-reflexive self-texts are characterized by variability in the total number of words with a higher number of them and a higher frequency of using the pronoun “I” and a higher index of logical coherence in students-military psychologists. Five thematic blocks and imaginative associations inside of them have been singled out using content analysis: reflective person, person in development and search, a person in trials and psychological problems, positive person, and social person represented unevenly in the sample groups. Imaginative associations inside of them are determined too. Metalogical means of imaginative associations expression prevail in non-reflexive self-texts of students-psychologists. They are presented differently in thematic blocks of different groups of students.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The conclusions about the greater psycholinguistic diversity of non-reflexive self-texts of students-civilian psychologists and the psycholinguistic heterogeneity of texts of female and male parts of the group of students-military psychologists are made. Study also concluded that thematic blocks and imaginative associations inside them are represented differently in sampling groups. Metalogical means of verbalization of imaginative associations are superior to autological ones in sample of students-psychologists.</em></p> Liudmyla Krupelnytska Tetiana Kudrina Mahdalyna Lyla Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 30 2 83 113 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-83-113 Semantic Indicators of Personal Orientation in the Narratives of Adolescents with Deprivation of Verbal Development <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong><em>. The article presents results of the study of personal narratives of adolescents with hearing and visual impairments, as well as their peers without relevant disorders. </em></p> <p><em>The <strong>aim</strong> of this work was to analyse the semantic indicators of personal narratives of adolescents with deprivation of verbal development. In the course of theoretical research there were systematized the approaches to understanding the ontogenesis and dysontogenesis of personal formation; there also were analysed the results of previous studies of language consciousness and speech behaviour of adolescents, the formation of which occurs in conditions of verbal deprivation; besides there were generalized theoretical materials on the role of textual interaction in the process personal orientation formation.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>. The methods of empirical research were narrative analysis of personal texts of respondents with the procedures of Grounded theory. Statistical processing of the obtained data was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. The empirical study identified a number of features specific to each of three groups of respondents (those with hearing impairments, those with visual impairments, and those without any impairments). Comparative analysis of obtained data revealed the homogeneity of personal narratives of adolescents with visual impairments and without impairments and the fundamental difference in the texts created by subjects who have hearing impairments, and accordingly live in conditions of verbal deprivation.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. The empirical study allowed identifying the importance of verbal deprivation in the process of personal development of adolescents. It is proved that adolescents, whose personal formation takes place in the conditions of verbal deprivation, demonstrate specific forms of personal orientation. Personal orientation determines the peculiarities of perception of the world, self-awareness and accumulation of one's life experience, which is reflected in personal narratives. The specificity of orientation of adolescents with hearing impairments is reflected in their narratives. Its difference from the orientation of adolescents with visual impairments suggests that exactly verbal deprivation (but not the functional dysontogenesis) determines the peculiarities of personal orientation. The prospects for further research in this area can be connected with studying linguistic, stylistic and semantic aspects of speech behaviour of people who live in conditions of verbal deprivation.</em></p> Olga Lozova Olena Lytvynenko Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 30 2 114 138 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-114-138 Cognition, Emotions, and Language in Front-Line Healthcare Workers: Clinical and Ethical Implications for Assessment Measures <p><strong><em>Objectives. </em></strong><em>The article aims to reveal language-based markers of stressful experiences in healthcare workers in terms of their cognitions and emotions<strong>.</strong>&nbsp; The following research questions were formulated for the current study: (1)&nbsp;Are risk and protective factors for psychological stress in healthcare staff, working with patients with COVID-19 aligned with anxiety, depression and resilience? (2)&nbsp;Are there any language-based indicators for emotional distress in healthcare staff, working with patients with COVID-19? (3) What are the key cognitions, emotions, and behavioral patterns are expressed in healthcare workers’ staff language? (4) What are words-associations in the Ukrainian Associative Dictionary aligned with language-based indicators of professional ethics in healthcare staff? </em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods</em></strong><em>. The study applies Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), t</em><em>he Psychological Stress Scale (PSM-25), and the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC 2015). </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>Results show that healthcare staff demonstrates a low level of psychological stress, depression and anxiety, and a medium level of resilience. The results of multiple linear regression indicate that the only significant negative predictor of stress is resilience. The psycholinguistic analysis of healthcare staff's narrative on their professional experience treating COVID-19 patients shows the key meaningful categories, namely social contacts, cognitive processes, and time. Social contacts are primarily represented by the category family. The word-associations from the Ukrainian Associative Dictionary indicate that feeling of guilt related to professional ethics in healthcare staff is more expressed in men compared with women.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion.</em></strong><em> The insights gained from this study may be of assistance to developing effective interventions for healthcare staff during a pandemic, primarily focusing on protective factors and weakening feelings of guilt to prevent moral injury. The study also raises some issues of the clinical psycholinguistic approach to examining emotional distress. This approach would be a fruitful area for further work.</em></p> Larysa Zasiekina Tetiana Pastryk Mariia Kozihora Tetiana Fedotova Serhii Zasiekin Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-24 2021-10-24 30 2 8 25 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-8-25 Diagnosis of Features of Speech Thinking in Children With Cerebral Palsy <p><strong><em>Purpose. </em></strong><em>The purpose of this article is a theoretical analysis and coverage of the results of the diagnosis of speech thinking in children with cerebral palsy.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods. </em></strong><em>As psycholinguodiagnostic tools the technique which initial variant is the test of structure of verbal intelligence of R.&nbsp;Amthauer modified by L.&nbsp;Peresleni, L.&nbsp;Chuprov</em> <em>is applied. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>The conceptual basis of the article was the provision on the importance of the transition from preschool to primary school age as an important stage in the speech development of the child, because during this period child masters the conscious algorithm for using speech. </em><em>The research procedure included the study of the following parameters: (1)&nbsp;indicators of the development of speech thinking: activation of vocabulary on the general awareness of the child; explication of the ability to abstract; verbalization of the ability to establish logical connections and relationships between subjects; ability to apply generalizing concepts in speech; (2)&nbsp;the child’s learning, which was manifested in the ability to apply pedagogical assistance in the form of an algorithmic flowchart in the process of performing tasks.</em> <em>As a result of research the disproportion of structure of speech is revealed</em><em>, in particular, at the beginning of school education preschoolers have accumulated a certain stock of specific ideas about objects of the outside world, but not yet formed ideas about quantitative, temporal and spatial relations between them. The children with cerebral palsy have been found to have a specific group of errors that are persistent. The biggest difficulties are the relationships between objects that are mediated by spatial relations and involve the use of prepositions. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>Among the factors in the development of speech thinking should be noted neurodynamic features of this category of children, manifested in the inability to fully retain all the original data in the perception of semantic units of speech, difficulties in maintaining a stable level of activity, and insufficiency and inferiority of past experience. Decreased mental activity in these children due to organic damage leads to a slowdown in perception and understanding of speech stimuli. A description of algorithmic psychological and pedagogical assistance is presented, which is based on the use of psycholinguistic tools and allows tracing the formation of speech thinking in the interaction of speech and cognitive components.</em></p> Оksana Romanenko Liliia Rudenko Andrii Shevtsov Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-24 2021-10-24 30 2 203 223 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-203-223 Psycholinguistic Mechanisms of Understanding Contemporary Poetry by Future Philologists <p><strong><em>The purpose</em></strong><em> of the article </em><em>is to conduct the empirical study of </em><em>understanding contemporary poetry by future philologists, which helps us to distinguish</em><em> psycholinguistic</em><em> mechanisms of such understanding</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>The methods of the research.</em></strong><em> The research was carried out using a sample method (using a questionnaire developed by us (</em><em>Mykhalchuk</em><em>, </em><em>Ivashkevych</em><em> &amp; </em><em>Nabochuk</em><em>, </em><em>2020</em><em>). This questionnaire we use to assess the psychological specifics of understanding of contemporary poetry by future philologists. </em><em>In order to establish the peculiarities of the content of the associative series of the word “poetry”, we organized an associative experiment.</em> <em>Also we used the method of annotated reading (Illyashenko, 1980). The application of this technique involved solving the following tasks: (1)&nbsp;to develop the criteria to understand poetry for students; (2)&nbsp;to determine the levels of understanding of future philologists of poetic texts.</em></p> <p><strong><em>The results of the research</em></strong><em>.</em> <em>We single out some special psycholinguistic mechanisms of understanding of poetic texts by students-philologists, such as: (1).&nbsp;The mechanism of actualization of “emotions of form”. (2).&nbsp;The mechanism of harmonization of meaning. (3).&nbsp;The mechanism of amplification of poetry. (4).&nbsp;The mechanism of acquiring aesthetic experience. We proved, that the subject of understanding is an active communicative person with multifaceted personal qualities. The subjective component of understanding is specified in two main groups of factors: (1)&nbsp;the factor of the activity of the understanding the subject, generalized in target conditions of understanding; (2)&nbsp;the factor of individual-personal conditionality of understanding: the assessment by the subject of understanding of his/her own moral, volitional, emotional-communicative qualities, personal aggression, a tendency to reflection, etc.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong> <em>The success of improving readers’ perception and understanding of the poetry depends on the activation of the latter. Readers focus more on direct intentions than on their own feelings and ideas about poetry, although the latter determines their different perceptions. The development of the perception and understanding of the poetic form of the reader is due to the realization of the increasing complex of emotional connections of the semantic elements of the text, and emotionality is one of the main criteria for assessing poetry.</em></p> Nataliia Mykhalchuk Ernest Ivashkevych Inna Nohachevska Alexander Nabochuk Oksana Voitenko Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-21 2021-10-21 30 2 139 179 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-139-179 Personal Qualities of M.S. Gorbachev and B.N. Yeltsin in Language Consciousness of Humanities Students <p><strong><em>Objectives</em></strong><em>. The study aims at identifying and describing a fragment of the linguistic consciousness of humanitarian students, reflecting their ideas about the personal qualities of M.S. Gorbachev and B.N. Yeltsin. The additional tasks are: (1) to compare the characteristics identified experimentally with the linguistic characteristics of these personalities in the official mass media; (2) to analyze the role of media discourse in the formation of images of the politicians under study.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Material and Methods</em></strong><em>. The method of unipolar personal semantic differential is used. The process of the results included the identification of group universal assessments, their qualitative analysis, comparison and qualitative analysis of the similarities and differences of the universal evaluations of the stimuli studied.</em> <em>Media texts published for the 90th anniversary of Gorbachev and the 90th anniversary of Yeltsin, selected by the method of random (serial) sampling, were analyzed qualitatively</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. Group semantic universals reflecting students’ perceptions of the politicians studied are poor in content. The most striking characteristic of Gorbachev are selfishness and deceitfulness, unlike Yeltsin he is thought to be hardworking and calm. A distinctive feature of Yeltsin is ambition. Both leaders appear as free in their behavior, the difference lies in the fact that Gorbachev is considered experienced, but devoid of tact and flexibility, Yeltsin lacks creativity, wit and malevolence. Both combine such traits as sociability, activity and intelligence. The experiment does not record the qualities that are emphasized in mass media – kindness and care for the good of the country.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The ideas of students about the personal qualities of Gorbachev and Yeltsin are rather vague, “kaleidoscopic” in nature. The group assessment of the personal characteristics of these politicians does not coincide with the interpretation offered by various mass media</em><em>. Mass media today </em><em>do not contribute to the development of a view of the history shared by a significant part of society, which, in turn, leads to the conservation of socio-political contradictions in society.</em><em> Moreover, </em><em>modern media, despite its advantageous position, now play rather a destructive role in creating a common view of the history of Russia and the quality of its recent leaders. The result may be a state of psychological conflict in society directly related to culture and the human self, with “identification confusion” (the term </em><em>of </em><em>E. Erickson) that has the function of a collective ego.</em></p> Irina Bubnova Elena Tokareva Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-17 2021-10-17 30 2 Second Language Learners’ Pauses Over Different Times Intervals in L2 Writing Essays: Evidence From a Keystroke Logging Program <p><strong><em>Purpose</em></strong><em>. Several studies have been conducted to analyse students’ pauses during first language and/or second language writing to indicate the magnitude of the underlying cognitive processes learners have. Majority of studies have examined students’ pauses at a threshold 200ms. However, little is known about recording second language learners' pauses at different pauses’ times over different types of genres. The current investigation reports a case study of L2 learners’ cognitive processes by recording their pauses (&lt;500ms, &lt;1000ms, and &lt;2000ms) during L2 writing in response to multiple genres prompts. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Design&nbsp;/&nbsp;methodology&nbsp;/&nbsp;approach</em></strong><em>. Twenty-five postgraduate students were asked to write three essays over three weeks, and their writing processes were recorded using a keystroke logging program (Inputlog, 7, Leijten &amp; van Waes, 2013). Data was triangulated using a log file from the keystroke logging program, a process graph for writing behavior through different stages, and a visual video recording of their captured screens during writing behaviours. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Findings</em></strong><em>. Results found that the students paused over sentence and paragraph boundaries and their pauses between paragraphs were significantly higher in writing narrative essay than in their argumentative essays at pauses intervals &lt;500 and &lt;1000ms respectively, and in turn, their pauses between sentences in an argumentative essay were significantly higher than their pauses in a descriptive essay at &lt;500, &lt;1000 respectively. However, there were no significant differences across word boundaries over genre types. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The current study extends the previous literature in examining the underlying cognitive processes during L2 writing tasks as the trendy issue of psycholinguistics. Knowing the cognitive processes is crucial in diagnosing the students’ difficulties in writing L2 essays as advanced technology has the potential to explore intrusively the accurate cognitive processes learners involved during writing tasks.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Originality&nbsp;/&nbsp;value</em></strong><em>. This paper is innovative in examining a state-of-the-art issue and has implications to the field of psycholinguistics.</em></p> Mohammed Mohsen Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-16 2021-10-16 30 2 180 202 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-180-202 Text Health Messages in Religious Discourse: Psycholinguistic Analysis <p><strong><em>Objective. </em></strong><em>The aim of this research is psycholinguistic analysis of text health messages in religious discourse.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials &amp; Methods. </em></strong><em>The material for the study was public statements about the Covid-19 pandemic of the largest churches in Ukraine (Orthodox, Catholics, Protestants). In total, 8 information messages were analyzed (4 reports – the first response to the pandemic; 4 reports – official recommendations for behavior during the pandemic). We used Statistica 12 software and Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) to perform psycholinguistic analysis.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>We analyzed the stylistic and content characteristics of Information messages about Covid-2019, as well as identified their emotional, cognitive and structural markers. Religious appeals have neutral emotional markers. Messages have some cognitively complex, as evidenced by both meaningful (the presence of causal links and facts) and stylistic markers (frequent use of prepositions and conjunctions). But qualitative text analysis did not reveal complex terms or constructions. Religious news is full of data on new social rules, distancing, the asymptomatic course of the disease. In general, the text is informative, contains emotionally supportive instructions and decisions, gives temporary advice on physical and spiritual life, calls for prayer and humility. There are many indefinite pronouns in the text to emphasize that the virus applies to everyone. The messages are aimed at assessing and discussing the present, without predictions for the future.</em> <em>A common feature of all reports is the appeal to church involvement, as well as to the authority of the government and healthcare facilities.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong> <em>Text health messages in religious discourse are characterized by neutral</em> <em>emotional markers and cognitive simplicity.</em> <em>Churches carry out informational education through mass communication, which aims to supports and disseminates the state's information position and guidelines on Covid-19.</em> <em>We see the prospects for further research in building a model of effective health communication.</em></p> Nataliia Kostruba Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-10-16 2021-10-16 30 2 59 82 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-30-1-59-82 Associative Dictionaries as an Ethnic Mental Phenomenon: Basic Values in the Core of Ethnic Group Language Consciousness <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong><strong><em>.</em></strong> <em>Associative research is widely practiced in the field of sciences related to linguistics as an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the relationship of language with consciousness, psyche, and human culture;</em> <em>the corpus of associative data we have created in the Kazakh language replenishes associative lexicography in the context of broad intercultural comparisons. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods.</em></strong> <em>The dictionaries of the associative norms of the Kazakh language </em><em>(D</em><em>mitryuk, </em><em>1978; </em><em>Dmitryuk, Moldalieva</em> <em>et al.,</em> <em>2014), prepared on the basis of data of free</em><em> associative experiments (SAE) with 1000 Kazakh students, contain unique information about the mentality and ethnocultural characteristics of the Kazakh ethnic group in the Soviet and modern period.</em></p> <p><em>FAE is a well-known method of employing the associative experiment data, the reliable way to access a person’s linguistic consciousness; statistical processing of the FAE body associative data provided for the analytical comparison of a hierarchical sequence of the Kazakh basic values as a linguistic consciousness core – its central and peripheral zones – in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>Due to the diachronic and interethnic comparative analysis: such basic Kazakh values as religion beliefs, freedom, sovereignty, state symbols have been subjected to the significant changes; ethnic cultural kernel preferences remained traditionally unchanged, </em><em>constituting the specific essence of the ethnic national mentality</em><em>: </em><em>attitude to motherland, mother, elders, men, gender and age as specific peculiarities in the </em><em>hierarchy of family relations.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>The intralingua comparison of the dictionaries’ contents revealed a very stable body of unchanging value priorities, indicating a fairly strong core and a significant vitality degree of Kazakh society.</em></p> <p><em>The work contributes to the intercultural associative research, associative lexicography and provides for the development of promising research in Psycholinguistics in Kazakhstan.</em></p> Natalya Dmitryuk Galina Abramova Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 30 2 Variation in the Speech of Two Palestinian Immigrant Groups <p><strong><em>Objectives.</em></strong><em> This sociolinguistic study aims to take a close look at the differences and similarities in the linguistic behavior of two Palestinian groups and analyze these in light of social and political factors. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> The study adopts the Labovian Paradigm, and face-to-face techniques are used to collect data. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>The first group immigrated to Jordan from Palestine as a result of being forced from their homes in 1948. They came seeking refuge in Jordan, and, because they came from Palestine, they were treated as such. When the Arab-Israeli war began nearly two decades later, a new wave of Palestinians migrated to Jordan in 1967. Yet, at this time, their Palestinian village belonged to Jordan, politically, because Jordan had annexed the West Bank in 1950. Thus, the political status of both sets of Palestinians at the beginning of their exodus played a major role in the subsequent development of their linguistic behavior in Jordan. It influenced the kind of variation that occurred in their speech. The first people to arrive were treated as Palestinian refugees, which minimized them from a social perspective. Thus, the study shows that the middle-aged and younger generations of this ethnic group abandoned their dialect, and 98</em><em>.0</em><em>% of them adopted the local variant. The individuals of the second set of migrants were treated as Jordanian citizens as they had simply migrated from one part of the country, namely, the West Bank, to another part of it, namely, the East Bank (Jordan). The study found a strong correlation between an individual’s identity and the political status granted by a country. Though the members of both groups are Palestinians, the study shows that all individuals behaved linguistically differently depending how they were perceived socially and politically in Jordan.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion.</em></strong><em> Palestinians emigrated in two large waves from their homeland to Jordan as the result of war. The first took place in 1948, and the second took place in 1967. The study shows that the linguistic behavior of both groups differs. The social and the political situations that each group found itself in determined, to a great extent, the linguistic behavior they adopted.</em></p> Mahmoud El Salman Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 30 2 «I-language» i. e. «Individual language»: The Problem of Functional Generalization <p><strong>Goal</strong>. To present the consequence of the functional classification of world languages, carried out on psycholinguistic grounds; to make a brief description of the individual language of a man as his speech-language ability, manifested in various functional-linguistic incarnations; to present the primary and secondary-functional group of languages as a means of realization the communicative and speech needs, motives and intentions of individuals taking into account the functional-linguistic diversity to ensure successful speech communication in micro- and macro-society.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> functional analysis; systematic analysis, generalization of literature; modeling of functional speech and language competence of a person; identification of different types of properties of the individual languages by secondary functional orientation; classification of national languages by their functional purpose; research synthesis; formulation of conclusions.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The functional properties of individual language as a biopsychoneurolinguosocial object can only be described by reference to the concept of “function”. The functions of human language are numerous, so the analysis of the each of them is carried out and its results are presented.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The basis for the functional classification of world languages can be the generative system and language ability (competence) of a man. Functional speech and language ability of a person can be represented as his functional and language metasystem with its inherent functions of the first language, non-native language (second and foreign), dominant language, internal language, individual language, metalanguage, translation language, professional language and other languages in the processes of externalization and internalization. The functions of the world’s languages change in accordance with the changes that occur in the communicative ranks of the national languages – indicators of the volume of functions in different types of communication. The number of language functions in individuals increases depending on the factors that determine the actualization of speech and language ability (biological, genetic), its implementation and improvement (environmental, social, ontogenetic, etc.).</p> Larysa Kalmykova Nataliia Kharchenko Inna Mysan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 30 2 59 99 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-29-1-59-99 Psychosemantic Dimensions of Basic Concepts of Economic Discourse (Comparative and Professional Aspect) <p><strong>The purpose of the study</strong> is the explication and systematization of the nuclear verbal associative reactions of students of economic and philological specialties to the leading economic categories and concepts.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> In our research was used the method of free associative experiment with the involvement of economic categories and concepts as stimulus words. The sample of respondents is formed on the principle of random selection and the rule of informed consent. The concepts recorded by the results of the associative experiment were subjected to the procedure of content-analytical processing using the computer program “Textanz” (version The method of psycholinguistic textual analysis is taken as a conceptual basis for processing and interpretation of the empirical data. The results of the content analysis of the recorded verbal reactions were generalized and compared with respect to the representatives of the two subgroups, as well as with the scientific definitions presented in modern thematic dictionaries.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The following universal tokens are empirically singled out as the nuclear associative reactions of respondents in the context of perception and comprehension of leading categories and concepts of the economic discourse, in particular: “money”, “people", "products (goods)", "production", "plant (factory)", "debt (loan)", "advertising", "management", "salary (income)", "wealth", "market", "business", "science (subject)", "village (farm)" and "products ». Although, in general, future economists have naturally demonstrated more verbal associations, as well as higher coefficients of the lexical diversity of relevant reactions, there are exceptions to this general rule, indicating possible "zones of weakness" for the potential psychological manipulation of any economic activities. This applies, in particular, to such key categories as "market" and "money", which have a significant affective commitment in the overall structure of the studied type of discourse.</p> Nataliya Savelyuk Oleg Kalmykov Viacheslav Riznyk Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-04-26 2021-04-26 30 2 142 166 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-29-1-142-166 Book Review "Psykholinhvistychnyi pidkhid do travmatychnoi pamiati" ["A Psycholinguistic Approach to Traumatic Memory"] written by L. Zasiekina, S. Zasiekin, O. Shevchuk) <p>The monograph, which is being reviewed, is devoted to an extremely important problem of modern psychology - the study of special aspects of the organization in memory of traumatic information about unpleasant life events as an important factor in effectively overcoming psychological traumatization. The authors argue that ignoring this aspect in the psychological practice of helping clients leads to negative consequences: escalation of the current traumatic state, the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the formation of depression, phobias, and ineffective behavior patterns. The novelty of this study lies in the fact that the authors proposed to study traumatic memory as a psychological phenomenon that functions within the normal range, and, therefore, which can be diagnosed without the use of medical diagnostics and neurodiagnostics methods. The reorganized traumatic experience, which consists of memories of traumatic life events which have been rethought and intellectually experienced, is the content of the traumatic memory. This approach significantly expands the opportunities of studying traumatic experience, since it allows using well-known memory models that were developed in the cognitive psychology and other psychological approaches in this research area.</p> Olena Savchenko Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 30 2 208 213 The Language of Confrontation in Everyday Discourse: Intentional Depreciation <p>The <strong>goal</strong> of the article is to present the results of the analysis of authentic dialogues and the interpretation of the intentions of linguistic techniques and means, including socio-political neologisms, which are used by subjects of communication at the level of common discourse (in particular, in social networks) in order to depreciate the interlocutor.<br><strong>Methods and methodology.</strong> During the research a complex of general scientific and psycholinguistic methods was used: recording of dialogues and utterances, content analysis, categorization, typologization, generalization, expert evaluation, interpretation of the results, as well as linguistic, qualitative and instructional analysis.<br><strong>Results</strong>. As a result of the study of conflict social political vocabulary in everyday discourse the following types of depreciation are identified: (1) depreciation of the person/group subject status; (2) depreciation of the person/group subject to the status of an animal or plant; (3) depreciation of the person/group subject to the status of an inanimate object. The analysis of speeches on a particular community or person<br>according to this typology also allows us to identify the intensity of impairment: the speeches are characterized by a violation of the symmetry of communication, which ranges from disdain to giving the speaker the status of an inanimate object. A feature of all types of depreciation is the creation of new words and the use of suffixes to strengthen or soften the negative load of the utterance.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Conflict language is a display of intrapersonal and group psychodynamic processes, and in its articulation a set of protective mechanisms is actualized, which contributes to the restoration of psychological comfort in difficult socio-political conditions. In general, the investigated conflict vocabulary can be defined as verbally written communication aimed at depreciation of a person or a group subject to achieve or fix individual and/or group subjects’ dominant positions in communication. The auto-aggressive nature of the use of conflict language destroys social cohesion,<br>but also has positive functional consequences: its intensification partly contributes to psychological discharge at the individual level and the reduction of socio-psychological tension at the collective level.</p> Vitalii Kotsur Iryna Vilchynska Liudmila Nykonenko Anton Kisse Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 30 2 100 116 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-29-1-100-116 Edification Dictums in the Language Consciousness of the Kazakh Ethnos <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Objective<strong>: </strong>linguacultural analysis of the edification words, collected in a free associative experiment (FAE) and published in the “Kazakh Associative Dictionary”.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods. </strong>Set of associations of instructive character singled out by the continuous sampling method into a separate fragment of the world paremiological image is a unique representative research material included into the Kazakh Associative Dictionary, in the 23 655 associative reactions of the students of different universities in Shymkent city for112 stimulus words, 272 sayings – edifications recorded in 200 questionnaires. Archetypal layers of the ethnic linguistic consciousness represented in the edifying paremias reflect the Kazakh spiritual and moral values. The content of the FAE and Kazakh Associative Dictionary reflects the indicative feature of the study, i.e. introduction of the gender factor differentiating the men and women associations; it provided for revealing and presentation of the reliable characteristics of the gender determined linguistic consciousness of the informants. The content of the sayings-edification mainly relates to the moral life of the nation, they enshrine the generally accepted ethical norms.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Gender irrelevant positions: evil and good are equally evaluated differently; respect for elders is clearly manifested.</p> <p>Gender marked positions: for men – duty to the homeland, responsibility for the family; desire to work together; for women – the desire to protect family values, to correspond to the accepted world order, androcentrism.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The linguistic consciousness of the ethnos (in particular, its fragment as an actively demanded paremiological fund) reflects archetypal ideas about the ethnic spiritual and moral worldview values, on which stable elements of the modern Kazakh linguistic culture are formed and actively functioning; being vital for the ethnic integrity.</p> Galina Abramova Natalya Dmitryuk Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 30 2 8 24 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-29-2-8-24 Wеb-project “STIMULUS” as a Tool of Psycholinguistics <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The article describes the functional characteristics of the web-service “STIMULUS” (“СТИМУЛУС”), which is the first Ukrainian psycholinguistic on-line tool for the research based on the associative experiments, illustrates empirical data to show the operational principles of the web-service.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the article </strong>are describing the functions of the author’s web-service “STIMULUS” ( and analyzing the social and political lexis associative fields created in 2018–2021.</p> <p><strong>The methods of the research </strong>are: (а) the psycholinguistic method of the free associative experiment and (b) the computer modelling were used to create the social and political lexis associative fields; (c) the programming method of domain-driven development was used to create the web-service; (d) the descriptive method was used to show the “STIMULUS” functions and&nbsp; empirical results; (e) the set of certain methods and techniques was used for the association’s analysis (includes classification, component analysis technique&nbsp; and others); (f) the set of statistical methods is used within the web-service to provide the empirical associative data calculation and visualization automatically.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The “STIMULUS” main parts are “Information”, “Research”, “Associative Data”. The “STIMULUS” helps to research the semantics of linguistic units, the linguistic worldview fragments, the personal psychological and semantic portraits (associative behavior) based on the automatic denotative and connotative analysis of the associations and provides results visualization. The pilot research of the social and political lexis in 2018–2021(100 stimuli, 97 respondents), organized with the “STIMULUS” help, found out: (1) the stimulus “independence” was associated by the Ukrainians with the state independence; (2) the stimulus “authority” got positive connotations; (3) the stimulus connotation can fluctuate up (like of “reform” and “authority”) and down (like of “society”).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The main functions of the “STIMULUS” are organizing the psycholinguistic associative research online, automatic analysis of the associative fields as well as personal psychological and semantic portraits, creation the mass associative database. The “STIMULUS” peculiarities are opened access, adaptability to the specific psycholinguistic tasks, multilingual interface and results visualization. The research of social and political lexis in 2018–2021 with the help of the “STIMULUS” proved its relevant advantage in the associative field modelling and analysis.</p> Olha Zahorodnia Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 30 2 76 102 10.31470/2309-1797-2021-29-2-76-102