PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal Psycholinguistics Journal publishes refereed articles dealing with psychological, anthropological, linguistic, social communication and psychodidactic aspects of psycholinguistics Hryhorii Skovoroda University in Pereiaslav (Ukraine) en-US PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2309-1797 Quantum-Holistic Nature of Speech Generation and Perception (Hypothetical Justification) https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1299 <p><em><strong>Introduction.</strong> In the article, the author <strong>hypothesizes</strong> that the processes of generation and perception of speech of future journalists have quantum-holistic characteristics. The study was carried out using theoretical and praxeological methods. The practical part of the study is devoted to trying to prove the hypothesis that the processes of generation and perception of speech of future journalists have quantum-holistic characteristics. </em></p> <p><strong><em>The methodology</em></strong><em> <strong>of the practical part</strong> has several research procedures, which were carried out in three stages. In the first stage, the subjects (N = 43) wrote down for 10 seconds 10 words that came to mind; in the second stage, the subjects (N = 27) performed the task of writing five sentences in 180 seconds that came to mind, the experimenter read six times the text of the prayer "Our Father" in Ukrainian. The subjects did not hear the prayer read. In the third stage, the influence of the experimental suggestion of the experimenter, who was at a distance of 450-600 km from the subjects (N = 24), on their associative verbal reactions during the description of the images presented by the subjects was measured. All reactions were interpreted in tables and diagrams recorded in the International Repository</em> <em>of</em><em>:</em> <em>1)&nbsp;</em><em>Social Science Research Network (SSRN) on February 12, 2022 (http://ssrn.com/abstract=4034175) and </em><em>2) Mendeley Data Search </em><em>on February 1</em><em>8</em><em>, 2022 (Kholod, Alexandr (2022), “For_article_Kholod_A_Quantum-holistic_2022”). Date, V1, doi: 10.17632 / gzsk33ykxv.1). The age of the subjects ranged from 18 (19) to 19 (20) years in two groups of students majoring in journalism. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion.</em></strong><em> It was found that from the standpoint of the holistic concept, the associative verbal reactions of the subjects have their inherent quantum verbal centers (QVC) and verbal peripheries (VP).</em></p> <p><em>All procedures conducted in human studies complied with the ethical standards of the Ethics Committee of the International Editorial Board of the Scientific Journal of Social Communications: Theory and Practice (Rec No. 2 of 28 February 2002).</em></p> Oleksandr Kholod Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 32 2 Theory of L1 Acquisition and Speech Development of Children in Ontogenesis: Methodology, Concept, Practice https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1330 <p><strong><em>Goal.</em></strong><em> To describe and present the new scientific theory developed by the co-authors - a system of generalized facts, knowledge and experience regarding the disclosure of the versatility of the genesis of psycholinguistic phenomena characteristic of preschool children. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> A complex of theoretical methods of analysis, research synthesis and generalization of a large number of sources was used: firstly, theoretical and conceptual approaches to children’s language and speech and its purposeful formation and development; secondly, empirical data obtained by various scientists working in this issue, as well as data of the own empirical research.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The main postulates of the theory of L1 acquisition and speech development presented as an integration of modern interdisciplinary knowledge and practice of the research and project activities, synthesized with a scientific purpose in a set of 14 modules: (1) vector of speech operations and speech actions development; (2) the place and role of systematic learning in L1 acquisition and speech development; (3) the role of implicit language and other types of knowledge in the formation of speech operations; (4) the role of metalanguage and metaspeech knowledge, reflection on speech and objectification of language in the formation of speech acts; (5) levels of awareness in the formation of speech acts; (6) the relationship between speech operations and actions and speech and language abilities, that is, language competences and speech competences; (7) interdependence of linguistic, psycholinguistic and psychological units in the development of speech activity; (8) the role and place of psycholinguistic units in the development of speech; (9) the role and place of psychological units in the formation of speech activity; (10) the role and place of language units in the formation of speech activity; (11) relationship between speaking and learning activities; (12) psycholinguistic prerequisites for the formation of speech activity; (13) psycholinguistic and didactic conditions for purposeful formation of speech activity; (14) relationship of speech operations with other types of operations.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The presented theory is an internally non-contradictory system of scientific concepts, views and ideas of its developers, which in a generalized form reveal the essential properties and regular connections of such a psycholinguistic reality as the evolution of the individual language of preschoolers and children’s speech, on the basis of which their explanation is achieved. This theory as an integrative set of principles not only reflects the understanding presented in world science, but is also based on empirical research, on a deep insight into the essence of the genesis of speech phenomena, which occurs in the child’s psycholinguistic nature. </em></p> Larysa Kalmykova Nataliia Kharchenko Hristo Kyuchukov Іnna Мysаn Heorhii Kalmykov Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-11-12 2022-11-12 32 2 The Concept of “Native Language” in the Minds of Ukrainians https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1212 <p><strong><em>Goal. </em></strong><em>To study individual perceptions and personal meanings of the concept of “native language</em><em>” in the minds of Ukrainians in the period from 2019 to now. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> Conceptual analysis (linguistic cultural theory (Karasik, 2002; Vorkachev, 2001)), comparative analysis (research of functional and cultural and value criteria for interpretation of the concept of “native language</em><em>”), free and directed associative experiments (research of the conceptual and figurative components of the semantic space of the concept, value aspect Values), research synthesis, wording of conclusions. In an empirical study, 146 people aged 25-45 years later; Period of experiment: April 2019 – April 2021. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. The concept of “native language</em><em>” is defined as a multidimensional mental formation having three aspects of meaning: figurative, desirable and value. He is qualified as a peculiar mental structure, which is the result of mental processes and human states (as part of collective unconscious and individual conscious and unconscious processes). A comparable analysis of the interpretation of the concept “native language” within linguistics, psychology, philosophy, culturology, sociology, a nominative field of the concept is structured. During the conceptual analysis, the structure of the concept “native language”: central (nuclear) and peripheral components were determined. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. Associations “First Language</em><em>”, “Language of the country” are reduced to the structure of the nucleus of the concept, since they generalize universal, national-cultural, socio-group and individual-personality ideas. The periphery of the concept of “native language” are less relevant to the carriers of a particular language and culture Permanent, figurative and other types of associations that outlines the individual experience of the respondent and are not typical (9.3%): “sumy language”, “surzhik”, “lightweight language” etc. In the awareness of the concept of “mother language” prevails the associations of speakers on a functional criterion based on a social basis and represents the level of perfection of language proficiency, the activity of its use in various spheres of communication, course of thinking processes by language. The cultural and value criterion is also taken into account by Ukrainians, but to a lesser extent (association “parent language”, “mother language”, “language of the country”, “the Language of the People”). The value aspect of the semantic space of the concept “native language” is described by respondents as a “safe”, “habitual”, “natural”, “sincere”, etc. The results of psycholinguistic analysis also show the possibility of awareness of the man of two native languages through the mixing of functional and cultural and value approaches to the interpretation of the concept of “native language”. </em></p> Nataliia Holikova Kseniia Taranenko Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 32 2 Representation of COLOR Concept in the French Phraseological Picture of the World and its Perception by Ukrainian Francophone Students https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1245 <p><strong><em>Purpose. </em></strong><strong><em>The purpose of the research</em></strong> <em>was to present the typical features and individual differences of verbal perception and understanding of COLOR concept by French-speaking Ukrainian students. To realize the goal, we set the task to identify the ethno-cultural specificity of the representation of COLOR concept in the French phraseological picture of the world and analyze the peculiarities of verbal perception of the connotative content of achromatic and polychromatic colors in the composition of phraseological units by students</em><em>-</em><em>francophones.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Research methods and techniques.</em></strong><em> The semantic-cognitive method, the psycholinguistic approach (free associative experiment), the technique of frequency-statistical characteristics, the method of component analysis, the linguacultural analysis, the system analysis and the research synthesis</em> <em>were used</em> <em>in the research.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> According to the results of investigation, the phraseological coloratives are a national realia and a cultural prototype. Color is a specific mental symbol that is verbalized and conveys a certain psychoemotional state of an individual. The coloratives which are directly related to the visual perception of the world constitute a psychoemotional component of the conceptual and linguistic picture of the world. The COLOR concept is</em> <em>actualized by emosems. Among the coloratives of phraseological nominations</em> <em>achromic (white and black)</em> <em>as well as polychrome (blue) are most represented in the</em> <em>psychological consciousness of the French language. Polychrome and achromic colors are correlated with certain emotions, character traits, psychophysical state. It has been</em> <em>established that the French cultural tradition is characterized by bioarchetypic</em> <em>correspondences between individual colors and certain symbolic meanings. A</em> <em>certain psychoemotional state corresponds to a certain color. Thoughts, feelings and associative states of a person are presented in the form of a color palette.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong> <em>As a result of the </em><em>free </em><em>associative experiment and the method of analysis of psychosemantics of color names it </em><em>wa</em><em>s established that coloratives </em><em>we</em><em>re a verbal symbol of carriers of sociocultural information that c</em><em>ould</em><em> reflect the hidden processes and laws of the linguistic picture of the world through the phraseological system. Colors with a negative connotation (74</em><em>.</em><em>42%) (red, black, blue, green, white, yellow, pink) predominate over colors with a positive connotation (25</em><em>.</em><em>58%) (pink, white, blue, green). The obtained results indicate that to a large extent the association «color – </em><em>psycho</em><em>emotional state» in the French phraseological picture of the world coincides with the ideas of Ukrainian students about psychoemotional states</em><em> expressed by the French phraseologisms</em><em>. </em><em>The p</em><em>hraseological </em><em>fond</em> <em>with</em><em> color</em><em> components</em><em> show</em><em>s</em><em> a powerful semantic</em><em> and </em><em>cognitive potential, the study of which deserves great attention from linguists, psychologists and psycholinguists on the way to a comprehensive study of human speech activity.</em></p> Olena Semenova Nina Khrystych Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 32 2 Associative-Verbal Qualification of Sensory Ethnic Stereotypes Made by Modern Ukrainian Language Native Speakers https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/985 <p><strong><em>Aim.</em></strong><em> The goal is to form a generalized associative ethnic portrait of the consciousness of modern Ukrainians by studying the deep laws of sensory correlations of the space of human consciousness in general and linguistic consciousness in particular, presenting the ethnolinguistic and cultural community, as well as the system of its linguistic perceptual stereotypes.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>. The main tools chosen are the methods of semantic-differential scales, the psycholinguistic method of directed associative experiment, the contextual method, the methods of observation, analysis, systematization, generalization and the method of quantitative calculations. A comprehensive methodology based on the consolidation of search, experimental, analytical, evaluation and generalizing approaches was applied.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The associative series of stimulus words are modeled which determine the standards of verbalizers of sensory perception. The directions are clarified in which the formation of perceptual standards takes place. The factors of inconsistencies of reactions to the stimulus in the western and eastern regions respondents are outlined. The linguistic stereotypes of the sensory level are distinquished which exist in the linguistic consciousness of modern Ukrainians</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The results of the directed associative experiment matched expectations: the respondents actualized the main verbalizers of perceptual modes with those provided by the language objectification system which are nominal entities that define vision standards, representing the most relevant characteristics for respondents, determine the standards of visual perception and represent a generalized associative ethnic portrait of the linguistic consciousness of 21st century Ukrainians, as well the system of his cultural perceptual stereotypes. The results obtained are the basis for a deeper understanding of the patterns and trends in the development of the Ukrainian language in the projection on human consciousness, it also will help organize the results of internal reflective experience, and description of Ukrainian linguistic culture will be possible as well.</em></p> Tetiana Semashko Olexandr Shvets Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-10-28 2022-10-28 32 2 Specificity of Internet Texts Understanding in Youth Age https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1319 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><em>. The article presents the results of studying the specifics of Internet texts understanding by young readers. </em><em>Athors have done </em><em>scientifically based analysis of the specifics of Internet texts understanding texts at a young age, depending on the level of </em><em>experience of Internet using</em><em>, thinking and speech development, and the level of </em><em>internet-oriented personality</em><em>. The regularities of the dynamics of understanding success at each stage of the comprehension process have been revealed.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials &amp; Methods</em><em>. </em></strong><em>Theoretical (deduction, induction, analysis, synthesis, generalization, systematization), empirical (experiment, method of semantic and pragmatic interpretations, content analysis; subjective scaling, multimedia experiment, tests (Ebbinghaus test, method of “Establishing regularities” by B.L.&nbsp;Pokrovsky, KOT by V.N.&nbsp;Buzyn, E.F.&nbsp;Vanderlik) and statistical methods (primary statistics, correlation analysis) were used for this purpose. The sample of the experiment consisted of 120 males and females. The study of the specifics of understanding were conducted by the author's method “Success of understanding the texts of the Internet”. This method is presented in the article. Also, authors were used the author’s method “Experience and orientation of the Internet user” to determine the level of </em><em>experience of Internet using </em><em>and the level of </em><em>internet-oriented personality</em><em>. Interpretive methods were based on specific principles of systemic, activity, cognitive, psycholinguistic, genetic approaches. Young age was chosen because this period young people starts to get work experience, to form career ambitions, to get the first experience of professional training at the workplace. People of this age actively use the Internet at home and often at work. Some of them are confident in their Internet competence. They don’t even think about what is it depends on, what is it determined by, and how effective is their communication on the Internet.</em></p> <p><em><strong>Results</strong>. The indicators of the success of Internet texts understanding were determined in a sample of young people depending on the level of </em><em>experience of Internet using, thinking and speech development and internet-oriented personality. Correlations were also established between the success of Internet texts understanding at a young age and the these subjective factors.</em></p> <p><em>Conclusions. It was found that the success of young people’s Internet texts understanding at the stage of interpretation is only from 16.3% to 29.1% of the content load. It has been established that the readers with the high level of </em><em>internet-oriented personality and thinking and speech development, understand more content of the text. But the influence of the factor of experience of Internet using on the success of understanding is almost twice as weak. The adequacy of the assessment of the Internet texts understanding is also related to the level of thinking and speech development</em><em> and </em><em>the </em><em>internet-oriented personality. However, under the influence of the investigated factors, this indicator deteriorates from 79.7% to 60.2% due to the effect of unjustified confidence of users with a high level of development. The consistency of the emotional attitude at a young age is more determined by the specificity of the Internet texts than by these subjective factors. The correlations are insignificant, and the level of emotional understanding is quite low, up to 17.7%. So, it need to form of special skills for working with internet text to improve the success of understanding. It has been proven that the most difficult thing in Internet texts understanding for young people are the emotional understanding, predicting from the illustration and interpreting the semantic load of the texts. To improve these and other indicators of understanding, corrective and developmental work is recommended. The priorities of this work should be exercises for the development of thinking and speech and awareness of the motivation for using cyberspace, becaust these factors have the most strong impact on the process of understanding in youth.</em></p> Nataliia Akimova Alina Akimova Anastasiya Akimova Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 32 2 Neuropsycholinguistic Foundations Diagnostics of Features of Development of Preconditions Teaching Writing to Children with Autism https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1145 <p><strong><em>Goal.</em></strong><em> The article in accordance with the purpose of the study highlights the results of theoretical justification and development of diagnostic methods aimed at determining the state of formation invariant successively-simultaneous syntheses to further provide the most accurate choice of how to prepare children with autism to master writing.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and techniques.</em></strong><em> Achieving the goal of the study was realized through the use of a set of general scientific, neuropsychological, neuropsycholinguistic methods and statistical calculation according to Student’s criteria to assess the reliability of differences between percentages in small samples.</em> <em>The sample consisted of children diagnosed with autism, who were not found to have disorders of auditory and visual analyzers, initially preserved intelligence, the maximum possible development of oral speech and who had significant difficulties in preparing to master the skill of writing.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> Based on the doctrine of the multi-functionality of the cerebral cortex and the sequential-simultaneous nature of providing various types of activities, a diagnostic technique was developed, the system of tasks of which was aimed at researching the state of development of perceptual, mnestic, thinking-speech levels of synthetic structures in children with autism. For the first time, on the basis of the analysis, comparison and generalization of the obtained experimental materials, general and distinctive characteristics of the strategy of perception and processing of information by children with autism were revealed. The general characteristic is that the neuropsychological sequential-simultaneous system, which is involved in the operationalization of writing in children with autism, is mainly at a low level of development.</em></p> <p><em>It was confirmed that most children have a strategy of a consistent way of perceiving and processing information, the dominance of which, however, led to significant difficulties in performing diagnostic tasks with complex stimuli in simultaneously combined values.</em> <em>At the same time, subgroups of children were identified who more successfully performed diagnostic tasks, the content of which required the use of a mostly simultaneous, holistic strategy or who had a certain degree of harmonious development of sequential-simultaneous structures. It is proved that the establishment of the leading type of synthetic activity allows to determine the optimal strategy of differentiated application of methods of formation of writing skills in children with autism at the initial stage of corrective and preventive work<strong>.</strong></em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The generalization of the analysis of the obtained results shows that, although the vast majority of children with autism have a strategy of consistent information processing, a necessary condition for their preparation for mastering writing should be to provide appropriate conditions for further development sequential actions and operations with the simultaneous formation of a simultaneous strategy, because mastering writing for all children with autism will have the effect of simultaneity from the beginning.</em> <em>The means of development of simultaneous structures is an indirect way of stimulating the central departments of visual, kinesthetic, tactile and vestibular analyzers with the use of neuropsychological methods and techniques.</em> <em>At the same time, corrective and preventive work can be carried out on the basis of the Gestalt-frame approach, based on the position of units of intermediate form of language, the development of which is ensured by simultaneous activities.</em></p> <p><em>The use of these methods in correctional and preventive work will help children with autism to master optical ideographic images of words, sentences, syllables and automated motor engrams with a gradual transition to mastering sound-letter analysis and synthesis, which form the psychological basis of writing.</em></p> Valentina Tarasun Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 32 2 Enjoyment in the Foreign Language Teaching Environment: Saudi Teachers’ Perspectives https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1324 <p><strong><em>Introduction.</em></strong> <em>Positive emotions are crucial for facilitating the learning process in foreign language (FL) classes. It has been well established that the emotion of enjoyment highly influences students and teachers in language learning environments and plays a key role in motivation. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Goals</em></strong><em>. The first objective of this study was to investigate the foreign language enjoyment (FLE) levels of FL teachers in Saudi Arabia. The second objective was to investigate the level of enjoyment felt by these teachers when they were FL students. Third, gender differences with regard to the level of enjoyment were studied. Finally, the sources of enjoyment were explored. Thirty-six teachers from different educational institutions in Saudi Arabia were surveyed. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results demonstrated that the participants experienced high levels of enjoyment when teaching FL classes; however, their enjoyment levels were significantly higher when they were FL students. A positive atmosphere at the workplace, students’ excitement about language learning, and the joy of passing knowledge to others served as sources of enjoyment among the FL teachers. In terms of their experiences as FL students, FLE stemmed from their own FL teachers’ attitudes as well as the process of learning a language applicable to real daily life. Gender was found to be only a mediator, not a predictor, of participants’ enjoyment as there were no statistically significant differences between male and female teachers. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> Thus, the following conclusions can be drawn based on the study. First, teachers must promote positive classroom environments by perfecting their general attitudes as much as possible to enhance the feeling of enjoyment among learners. This, in turn, will make the FL learning journey effortless and help students reach their learning goals and objectives. Furthermore, in pre-course sessions, a brief introduction that clarifies the importance of English as a foreign language is highly recommended. This will help students recognise the possible outcomes of their learning and enable them to enjoy their experiences of learning EFL. Second, institutions – i.e. schools and universities – that offer opportunities to teach EFL should provide positive working environments for their FL teachers. Institutions must also draw teachers’ attention to their role as vital knowledge resources for their students.</em></p> Sarah Manssour Al-Dosari Mohammed Ali Mohsen Samantha Curle Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 32 2 Psycholinguistic Structure of Stigmatic Statements about Persons with Intellectual Disabilities https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1167 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Introduction.</em></strong> <em>The article presents the results of a study of the psycholinguistic structure of stigmatic statements about persons with intellectual </em><em>(ID).</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>The purpose </em></strong><em>of </em><em>study is to </em><em>investigate the specific features of the stigmatic statements of persons with an intellectual norm according to the social society of people with ID.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>The methods </em></strong><em>of verbal associative experiment and semantic differential were used. </em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>The results.</em></strong><em> A high word-forming productivity of invectives related to the conceptual sphere of mental retardation</em><em> is found in the study</em><em>. In addition to stereotyping, also there is a tendency to normalization the use of invective vocabulary towards to</em><em> the</em><em> people with ID, which is becoming a common stamp of language consciousness.</em> <em>These facts indicate the limited speech experience of the population masses</em> <em>in the nomination of this group, which significantly reinforces the public stigmatization of the social society of people with ID.</em> <em>It has been proved that typical statements about people with </em><em>ID</em><em> are mainly a manifestation of mental protection of intellectually preserved people from people with mental characteristics that have a negative stigmatizing effect on this social group.</em> <em>The psychological mechanism of the generation of stigmatic statements according to persons with ID is the mechanism of shifting the signification</em> <em>to the meaning – subsuming personal meaning under common meaning.</em> <em>Empirically explicated protective-negativistic, reflexive, illusory-mythological, protective-therapeutic and substantive-metaphorical associations, as well as psychosemantic factors that provide the need to protect people with ID from society and reflect the possibility of a threat from its representatives</em><em>, </em><em>persons with an intellectual norm</em><em>,</em><em> indicate an inactive, latent form of fixing attitude to this group.</em> <em>Being actualized, this form of attitude acquires an open character, releasing a negative response potential.</em> <em>T</em><em>aking this into consideration</em><em>, </em><em>the stigmatic rhetoric of typical members of society in relation to persons with </em><em>ID</em><em> can be qualified not only as a way of mental protection, but </em><em>also </em><em>as </em><em>a </em><em>verbal aggression within the framework of </em><em>conflictogenic </em><em>speech behavior.</em></p> Olga Lozova Tamara Grubi Nataliia Starynska Mykhailo Palamarchuk Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2022-10-13 2022-10-13 32 2 The Hemingway’s Six-Word Story Effect: A Psycholinguistic Verification https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1294 <p><strong><em>Purpose. </em></strong><em>An empirical verification of the Hemingway’s “sad hypothesis” and study of some individual characteristics of a discourse formation in a process of short texts understanding.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and procedure of research.</em></strong><em> The study was based on the principle of a standardized interview, which was carried out on a random sample (103 respondents) using the questionnaire. The subjects interpreted two proverbs and the short story by Hemingway (“For sale: baby shoes, never worn”). In each case, it was proposed to choose one of the six ready-made interpretations or to create an original one. Proverb explications were classified by experts as “normative” or “deviating”, and interpretations of the story were evaluated into “sad” or “pragmatic” ones. Also, a “normativity index” was calculated for each respondent, reflecting the number of normative renditions of proverbs. The Psychogeometric test was used, and such socio-demographic characteristics were recorded as: gender, age, having children.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> This study refutes the “sad hypothesis” regarding Hemingway’s six-word story affect. The prevalence of pragmatic type interpretation over sentimental one is statistically significant. The type of interpretation turned out to be not directly related to any of the considered socio-demographic characteristics. It was found that the sad interpretation of the story reliably corresponds to a high normativity of the proverbs explications. Conversely, respondents with deviating interpretations of proverbs were significantly more likely to interpret Hemingway</em><em>’</em><em>s story in a pragmatic way. Differential psychological features, which were distinguished using the Psychogeometric test, turned out to be an insignificant predictor of the six-word story interpretations.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>The analysis of the research results made it possible to argue the thesis that the differences in the formation of individual discourses are directly related to a worldview and indirectly determined by other factors in turn influencing the outlook. The interaction of the worldview with discursive practice that arises in the process of short texts understanding is carried out according to differential scenarios. These scenarios are conditioned by such individual characteristics as discursive conformity and discursive lability, which, in turn, correspond with high and low normativity, respectively. Above features are cognitive in nature. Their ontological localization coincides with the I-language (Chomsky).</em></p> Vitalii Shymko Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 32 2 The Effects of a Psycholinguistic Approach to Multisensory Instruction on Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Learning Disabilities https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1302 <p><strong><em>Purpose. </em></strong><em>The purpose was to investigate the effect of a psycholinguistic training to improve expressive language among children with ASD.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> Data were collected from children during the academic year 2021-2022.</em> <em>The participants were 20 children with ASD, aged 7 to 10 years, who were enrolled in a school for children with ID. All children attended the same semester inside the school. Parent consent forms were sent home by the principal and school psychologist to the parents of the prospective participants to inform them about the study and ask them to give permission for their children to participate. Demographic information was obtained from school records and as reported by families. Children were divided randomly into two groups: one experimental (n=10) and other was the control group (n=10).</em> <em>These children were matched as a group with cases on the basis of age, IQ, social class and general level of language ability. A 24 items, six-dimensional Questionnaire was developed in particular for this study. The intention was to identify expressive language skills for children with ASD. The six dimensions are: speaking and questioning skills in correct language</em> <em>(4 items), the ability to verbally express things, needs, and desires</em> <em>(4 items), the skill of pronouncing and imitating words, letters and sounds</em> <em>(4 items), repetition and arranging skill</em> <em>(4 items), the ability to verbally express feelings</em> <em>(4 items), the ability to respond to the speech and questions of others.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> Results indicated increased speaking and questioning skills in correct language,</em> <em>the ability to verbally express things, needs, and desires, the skill of pronouncing and imitating words, letters and sounds, repetition and arranging skill, the ability to verbally express feelings and the ability to respond to the speech and questions of others.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> Overall, results from this study contribute to the growing literature on the effect of a psycholinguistic training to improve expressive language among children with ASD. The present study lends empirical support to the notion that expressive language of children with ASD can be improved through a psycholinguistic training.</em></p> Loul Saleh Al Rasheed Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 32 2 Foreign Language Processing of English Regular and Irregular Past Tense Verbs by Arabic-Speaking EFL Children https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1306 <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong><em> This paper examines whether irregular past verbs are acquired earlier than regular past verbs by Arabic-speaking EFL children.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and procedure.</em></strong><em> Ninety fifth graders were tested using pictures representing 20 regular and 20 irregular past tense verbs through a sentence completion task. An introspective session was conducted with 70 children following the administration of the tests in order to determine the areas of difficulty. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. The results mainly revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between regular and irregular verbs in favour of regular verbs. This suggests that the children learn regular forms prior to irregular ones contradicting the Natural Order Hypothesis and providing credence to the two Interlanguage strategies, namely, the L2 Overgeneralization of Alternative L2 Category Strategy and L1 Transfer Strategy. The children’s failure to produce the irregular form of the verb can be ascribed to the default system that they rely on, which is the computation system rather than the storage system. Thus, Arabic-speaking EFL children apply regular inflection of -ed whenever their memory fails to produce an irregular verb form.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. This study has demonstrated that Arabic-speaking EFL children do not follow the same sequence of acquisition as that exhibited by first language learners in acquiring the regular and irregular simple past forms. These learners acquire the regular past tense forms prior to the irregular ones contradicting the Natural Order Hypothesis. Due to the lack of irregularities in their first language, these learners apply the regular inflection rule to novel or unfamiliar verbs without sometimes considering the possibility of an existent irregular form that needs to be retrieved from memory. This also provides credence to two Interlanguage strategies, namely, the L2 Overgeneralization of Alternative L2 Category Strategy and L1 Transfer Strategy. More studies that investigate the sequence of acquisition of other types of morphemes by Arabic-speaking EFL children are needed to explore the effect of L1 and other factors such as the learning situation on the acquisition of English morphemes.</em></p> Abdel Rahman Altakhaineh Rozan Alhloul Aseel Zibin Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 32 2 Second Language Testing: Assessing the Psychometric Properties Causes of Second Language Writing Anxiety Scale (SLCWAS) Using Rasch Model Analysis https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1296 <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong><em> The aim was to develop and validate (SLCWAS)so as to provide support for its application among primary school students. It was postulated the following: (1)&nbsp;the (SLCWAS) was developed for application to primary school students in a Saudi Arabian cultural context; and (2)&nbsp;the (SLCWAS) has appropriate psychometric properties. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and Procedure</em></strong><em>. 190 primary school students were included in this study. CFA was conducted for testing item-factor structure of the scale. The fit indices were found to be Chi square = 32.16 (p &lt; .001), degree of freedom = 190 (χ2 = 32.16; df = 190, χ2/df = 3.24), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .07 (p &lt; .05) standardized root mean- square residual (SRMR) = .05, comparative fit index (CFI) = .93, non-normed fit index (NNFI) = .96, goodness of fit index (GFI) = .96, and adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = .95. These outcomes prove that SLCWAS is a valid and reliable measure.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> Findings indicate that the empirical ICC curves fit well with the expected ICC curves for all the items. the levels of SLCWAS in primary school students are widely distributed. Higher Logits scores indicated that students have higher levels of SLCWAS. Males and females had the same location in answering SLCWAS items and that there was no DIF for the SLCWAS items with respect to gender.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong><em>SLCWAS was validated in the Rasch analysis with a sample of primary school students. The preliminary reliability investigation revealed a very high internal consistency for the scale.</em></p> Mohammed R. Alzahrani Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 32 2 A Psycholinguistic Training to Improve Expressive Language Among Children with ASD https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1293 <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>The purpose was to investigate the effect of a psycholinguistic training to improve expressive language among children with ASD.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> Data were collected from children during the academic year 2021-2022. The participants were 20 children with ASD, aged 7 to 10 years, who were enrolled in a school for children with ID. All children attended the same semester inside the school. Parent consent forms were sent home by the principal and school psychologist to the parents of the prospective participants to inform them about the study and ask them to give permission for their children to participate. Demographic information was obtained from school records and as reported by families. Children were divided randomly into two groups: one experimental (n=10) and other was the control group (n=10). These children were matched as a group with cases on the basis of age, IQ, social class and general level of language ability. A 24 items, six-dimensional Questionnaire was developed in particular for this study. The intention was to identify expressive language skills for children with ASD. The six dimensions are: speaking and questioning skills in correct language (4 items), the ability to verbally express things, needs, and desires (4 items), the skill of pronouncing and imitating words, letters and sounds (4 items), repetition and arranging skill (4 items), the ability to verbally express feelings (4 items), the ability to respond to the speech and questions of others.</p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong> <em>Results indicated increased speaking and questioning skills in correct language,</em> <em>the ability to verbally express things, needs, and desires, the skill of pronouncing and imitating words, letters and sounds, repetition and arranging skill, the ability to verbally express feelings and the ability to respond to the speech and questions of others.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong> <em>Overall, results from this study contribute to the growing literature on the effect of a psycholinguistic training to improve expressive language among children with ASD. The present study lends empirical support to the notion that expressive language of children with ASD can be improved through a psycholinguistic training.</em></p> Abdulaziz Alshahrani Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 32 2 Sociolinguistic and Extralinguistic Aspects of the Functioning of the Trilingualism in the Oil Industry of Kazakhstan https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1233 <p><strong><em>The purpose of the research.</em></strong><em> This paper describes the linguistic situation in the oil industry of Kazakhstan. The linguistic situation in the oil industry of Kazakhstan is characterized by functioning of the trilingualism with three languages being used simultaneously </em><em>–</em> <em>Kazakh, Russian and English. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and procedure of research.</em></strong><em> A survey was conducted among industry staff for the level identification of Kazakh-Russian-English trilingualism. Based on questionnaire method, we interviewed 600 oil industry specialists comparing the level of proficiency in the second and third languages, identifying the level of activity and particular spheres of communication for L1, L2, L3 for informants with different socio-demographic characteristics as well as individual motivations when choosing, studying and using the second and third languages </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong><em>.</em></strong> <em>Obtained records point out that the forms of interaction of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages are far from being similar. Kazakhs who do not know their native language, but only understand certain phrases make up 2.7%. Statistical data analysis revealed that 80.6% of Kazakhs are fluent in Russian, 1.4% of Kazakhs do not know Russian, 1</em><em>.0</em><em>% of Kazakhs are able to understand certain phrases. The age groups of 21-25, 26-35, and 36-45 have the highest English speakers percentage.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. The Kazakh-Russian-English trilingualism is widespread among representatives of various social and professional groups of the oil industry, who speak their native Kazakh and Russian languages fluently, and also know how to communicate in English</em><em>.</em></p> Kulpash Koptleuova Balgenzhе Karagulova Bagila Muratbek Mairagul Kushtayeva Kulshat Kondybay Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-04-10 2022-04-10 32 2 57 77 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-2-57-77 Peculiarities of External Speech Operations in Narrative Speech of Senior Preschool Children https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1289 <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong><em> The purpose of the study was to investigate the state and levels of development of external speech operations of the development of external speech operations in lexical and grammatical structuring in the narrative speech of older preschool children. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Research methods and techniques</em></strong><em>. The research used theoretical methods: analysis of psycholinguistic and psychological literature, generalization of data obtained as a result of analysis, isolation and substantiation of criteria and indicators of psycholinguistic diagnosis of the state and levels of external speech operations development in older preschool children, drawing conclusions; empirical methods: conversations with preschool children, analysis of children’s stories, content analysis, ascertaining (study of the level of narrative speech development in preschool children) experiment; methods of mathematical statistics. In order to diagnose the development of external speech operations in narrative speech, the following methods and techniques were used: sentence ending technique, directed associative experiment of I.L.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Baskakova, V.P.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Hlukhova, technique “Tell by the picture” of R.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Nemov, method of psychographic analysis of I.M.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Lushchykhina, V.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>K.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Haida, V.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>V.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Loskutova. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results of children’s narrative speech observation reveal the features and levels of external speech operations development in lexical and grammatical structuring in older preschool children, the uniqueness of children’s external speech, characteristic for each of the selected levels, show that each child who develops normally has an inherent individual uneven development of narrative operations and actions. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The conclusion about statistically significant differences was made by comparing the obtained empirical indicators with the critical value of Student’s t-test. Analysis of the state of external speech operations development of narrative speech in older preschool children created the preconditions for the allocation of four levels of these speech operations development: high, sufficient, medium, and low.</em></p> Yuliia Krolivets Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-04-03 2022-04-03 32 2 63 91 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-1-63-91 Specifics of Perception of Phonetic Nonce Words by Readers in the Structure of Modern Poetical Discourse https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/648 <p><strong><em>Introduction. </em></strong><em>The</em> <em>article</em> <em>deals</em> <em>with</em> <em>the</em> <em>results</em> <em>of</em> <em>three</em> <em>psycholinguistic</em> <em>experiments</em><em>.</em> <em>The</em> <em>purpose</em> <em>of</em> <em>this</em> <em>research</em> <em>is</em> <em>to</em> <em>determine</em> <em>the</em> <em>influence</em> <em>of</em> <em>specific</em> <em>linguistic</em> <em>units</em><em> – </em><em>phonetic</em> <em>nonce</em> <em>words</em><em> – </em><em>on</em> <em>the</em> <em>perception</em> <em>of</em> <em>modern</em> <em>Ukrainian</em> <em>poetical</em> <em>discourse</em> <em>by</em> <em>addressees</em><em> (</em><em>readers</em><em>).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>The</em> <em>main</em> <em>methods</em> <em>for</em> <em>selection</em> <em>of</em> <em>research material are observation, continuous sampling method, contextually method.</em> <em>The experimental part of our research includes such methods: method of free associative experiment, method of directed associative experiment, method of semantic differential. The obtained results are processed using the quantitative counting method.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>As</em> <em>stimulus</em> <em>for</em> <em>linguistic</em> <em>analysis</em> <em>of</em> <em>phonetic</em> <em>occasional</em> <em>units</em> <em>in</em> <em>modern</em> <em>Ukrainian</em> <em>poetical</em> <em>discourse</em> <em>we</em> <em>used</em> <em>the</em> <em>most</em> <em>frequent</em> <em>phonetic</em> <em>nonce</em> <em>words</em> <em>in</em> <em>their</em> <em>graphic</em> <em>actualization</em> <em>(total </em><em>16 </em><em>different stimuli</em><em>). </em><em>The</em> <em>three</em> <em>experimentally</em> <em>groups</em> <em>of</em> <em>respondents</em> <em>include</em><em> 105 </em><em>students</em> <em>of</em> <em>three</em> <em>Poltava</em> <em>high</em> <em>schools. As</em> <em>a</em> <em>result</em> <em>of</em> <em>these</em> <em>experiments</em> <em>we</em> <em>used</em><em> 1684 </em><em>reactions</em><em>, </em><em>among</em> <em>them</em><em> 1146 (68</em><em>.0</em><em>%) – </em><em>positive</em><em>і, 300 (18</em><em>.0</em><em>%) – </em><em>negative</em><em>, 238 (14</em><em>.0</em><em>%) – </em><em>neutral</em><em>. </em><em>The</em> <em>lowest</em> <em>percent</em> <em>of</em> <em>neutral</em> <em>reactions</em> <em>is</em> <em>absolutely</em> <em>motivated</em><em>, </em><em>because</em> <em>phonetic</em> <em>nonce</em> <em>words</em> <em>are</em> <em>power</em> <em>intensifiers</em> <em>for</em> <em>the</em> <em>expressiveness</em> <em>of</em> <em>sound</em> <em>background</em> <em>in</em> <em>poetical</em> <em>discourse</em><em>. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>Phonetic</em> <em>nonce</em> <em>words</em> <em>make</em> <em>a</em> <em>positive</em> <em>influence</em> <em>on perception of modern verbal discourse by addressees. The special role in decoding of sound information belongs to acoustic-articulator characteristics of vowels and consonants. Our future researches we will connect with the organization of free associative experiments for different social and age groups of respondents. Such experiment will determine the real state of cultural tendencies in the perception of modern ‘art of the word’ by Ukrainians. </em></p> Yuliia Hryshko Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-16 2022-03-16 32 2 33 56 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-2-33-56 Psychosemantics of the Concept of “Mental Health” in the Language Consciousness of Students of Pedagogical Specialties https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1272 <p><strong><em>Purpose</em></strong><em>. The article, in accordance with the purpose of the study, describes the results of psycholinguistic and frame analysis of the concept of “mental health” in the language consciousness of future teachers. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> The study used the method of free associative experiment and the method of incomplete sentences, namely the construction “mental health”. The sample consisted of first- and second-year students of pedagogical specialties of three universities of Ukraine. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The psycholinguistic analysis of the concept of “mental health” by the method of free associative experiment revealed that students of pedagogical specialties mainly describe this concept by the following associations: “balance”, “calm” and “harmony”. Peripheral reactions predominate among the associations obtained, which indicates that students of pedagogical specialties do not have a single understanding of the concept of “mental health” and the dominance of subjective ideas about it, based on previous experience. Psycholinguistic analysis of the obtained associations with the concept of “mental health”, according to the grammatical criterion, showed the predominance of paradigmatic grammatical associations, which indicates the development of respondents' complex and analytical thinking, which are characteristic of future teachers. The thematic analysis of the obtained associations showed their significant thematic diversity, which indicates the diversity of higher education students' ideas about the concept of “mental health”. Frame analysis of the text made it possible to identify three leading categories in defining the concept of “mental health”: psyche, factors and activities. It is established that the most represented in the definition of the concept of “mental health” is the frame of the psyche, and the smallest in number was the concept of the frame of activity. By highlighting the most frequent words in each frame, a script of the studied text was constructed to understand the concept of “mental health”: internal state and level of well-being – factor – behavior. The discourse script clearly demonstrates the understanding of the essence of the concept of “mental health”, its causality and ways of preservation.</em></p> Hanna Ivaniuk Іnna Melnyk Tamara Proshkuratova Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-14 2022-03-14 32 2 44 62 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-1-44-62 Dialogue in In-Depth Cognition of the Subject’s Psyche: Functioning of Pragmatic Referent Statements https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1256 <p><strong><em>The aim </em></strong><em>of our research was also to analyze the dialogue in in-depth cognition of the subject’s psyche in the psycholinguistic paradigm. The latter allows us to distinguish pragmatic-explicit and pragmatic-implicit reference statements in psychoanalytic dialogues, to classify such statements, to give their characteristics, which will further help psychoanalysts to build dialogues with patients in psychotherapeutic practice.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>In our research we’ve used author’s Psychodynamic Methodology of organizing of psychotherapeutic process, which contributes to the problem of understanding the essence of the patient’s psyche. The improvement of diagnostic tools stipulated the clarification of the focus of the process of active socio-psychological cognition on optimizing the psyche of the patient in the psychotherapeutic process. Also we proposed group method of active socio-psychological cognition (hereinafter referred to as the ASPC)</em> <em>which emphasized on a law of positive disintegration of the psyche of the person and its secondary integration at a higher level of mental development of a man (Yatsenko, 2020).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>.</em><em> The nature of</em> <em>emphasized by us pragmatic-implicit reference statements, the peculiarities of their functioning in the whole text fragment will resemble semantic performatives. In the paradigm of pragmatic statements, we will accept them as pragmatic statements. Although both pragmatic-implicit and pragmatic-explicit reference statements are very important for psychoanalytic dialogues. Pragmatic-explicit reference statements have all the features of performatives and can be fully characterized as pragmatic performatives.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> It was proved that positive pragmatic-explicit and pragmatic-implicit reference statements in psychoanalytic dialogue allowed us to identify the links between superficial and hidden semantic parameters of the patient’s psyche, which under the conditions of comprehension of his/her consciousness can open up prospects for their individual reconstruction by the subject, without the psychoanalyst’s help. This process facilitates the harmonization and functional optimization of the psyche of the person in in-depth correctional process. This way of solving a problem by a person sets the awakening of adequate capabilities of the subject, making by the patients’ some adjustments to their own behavior by expanding and deepening the boundaries of self-awareness in the process of active socio-psychological cognition.</em></p> Tamara Yatsenko Ernest Ivashkevych Lyubov Halushko Larysa Kulakova Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-12 2022-03-12 32 2 187 232 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-1-187-232 Individual Verbal Codes of Spontaneous Emotional Psychoregulation of Modern Ukrainian Youth https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1286 <p><strong><em>The purpose </em></strong><em>of the article</em> <em>is to analyze the ways of verbal emotional regulation of modern Ukrainian youth and to outline ways to improve their psycholinguistic hygiene. To achieve this goal, the following tasks were performed: </em><em>(</em><em>1)</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>the typical verbal reactions of modern Ukrainian youth to stressful stimuli were clarified; </em><em>(2</em><em>)</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>the features of youth spontaneous response to stress were compared with the usual formulas of Ukrainian linguistic culture of psychological self-defense</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and </em></strong><strong><em>T</em></strong><strong><em>echniques</em></strong><em>. </em><em>The investigation is grounded on the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, descriptive, questionnaire, communicative-pragmatic analysis, comparative method (to compare different verbal reactions of respondent), and the quantitative method (to determine the dominant forms of emotional response of young people).</em> <em>The comprehensive methodology was used: monitoring of scientific sources, experimental modeling of stressful situations, interviewing students, analysis of their spontaneous reactions, testing of various forms of influence on youth emotional verbal reactions, formulation of conclusions</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>.</em> <em>Based on the questionnaire, the author concludes about the mostly unconscious attitude of modern Ukrainian youth to forms of emotional response, as their spontaneous speech shows widespread use of non-normative, stylistically reduced units and limited use of traditional emotional exclamations, paremias or ironic expressions. Young people show more empathy in the psychoregulation of others than in relation to themselves. The author recommends cultivating in the youth environment communicative tactics of support, inspiration, outlining a positive perspective, emotional empathy and explaining the ineffectiveness of devaluation tactics, correcting of the addressee's behavior by a negative imperative.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong> <em>The article substantiates the importance of forming emotional competence of modern Ukrainian youth in higher education institutions, diversification and modernization of educational material, giving more attention to tactics and strategies of communication and analysis virtual forms of communication. The author emphasizes the need to develop students' meaningful attitude to their own speech and apply an active and creative approach to finding expressive and at the same time acceptable codes of emotional self-expression. The paper suggests practical recommendations to weaning students from vulgar and non-normative emotional reactions.</em></p> Myroslava Bahan Maryna Navalna Alla Istomina Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 32 2 6 32 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-2-6-32 The Image of the World and Human in the Paradigm of Digital Culture: Psycholinguistic Analysis https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1230 <p><strong><em>Introduction.</em></strong><em> The article presents a psycholinguistic analysis of a new concept of man in the situation of digital reality as a new image of the world. </em></p> <p><strong><em>The objective of the study </em></strong><em>is to consider the possibilities of transformational linguistics in determining the psycholinguistic essence of semantic and mental structures of modern linguistic norms and interpersonal communication in the process of forming a new concept of man. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods. </em></strong><em>The study is based on the methodology of modern </em><em>psychological, genetic-epistemological, philosophical-anthropological and linguistic theoretical reflections</em><em>. Their elaboration involved the methods of projective and cognitive linguistics in the process of analysis; their potential contributed to the identification of psycholinguistic features of linguistic communication in the era of </em><em>metamodernism.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>The problem of formation and development of a new concept of man (homo digitalis) in the conditions of digital reality is considered. The image of the world is conceptualized, which in psycholinguistics is perceived by the human mind as a reflection of reality mediated by objectivity and the corresponding cognitive schemes and reflections. The factor of influencing digital technologies on psychology and changing the ways of language communication is revealed. The peculiarities of modern man's realization of his creative abilities in linguistic-cognitive-epistemic activity in the process of actual perception of the image of the world are clarified. Shifting the emphasis to network communication is proved to lead to the loss of the human system of landmarks necessary for productive activities in the complexities and contradictions of the multidimensional digital world. The solution to this problem lies in the potential of transformational linguistics, its possibilities being the factor in understanding the new concept of man and his activities at the level of scientific understanding of the world. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>Psycholinguistic analysis of the concept of man in the situation of the new image of the world reveals the prospects for the active entry of modern culture of speech and communication in the parameters of digital reality. Psycholinguistic substantiation of this process in the context of transformational linguistics is an important step in identifying the intellectual and cognitive capabilities of a new concept of man as a result of the real perception of the digital world. </em></p> Vasyl Kremen Volodymyr Ilyin Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 32 2 78 94 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-2-78-94 Grammatical Processing in Schizoprenia: Analysis on Sentence Structure https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1284 <p><strong><em>Objective.</em></strong> <em>Language disorder is one of the most significant symptom domains that characterizes Schizophrenia Disorder. The aim of the present study carried out considering language deviations is to investigate and compare the </em><em>schizophrenic</em><em> patients’ and control group’s speech in terms of sentence structure. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials</em></strong> <strong><em>and </em></strong><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>The sample of the study consists of 50 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4 (DSM-4) and 50 healthy subjects matched with these patients by age, gender and educational level. The narrative skills of the subjects in the study were evaluated with four oral expression tests, which were </em><em>narrative picture test, story picture sequencing test, semi-structured speech test, and free speech test.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. </em><em>As a result of the </em><em>statistical and linguistic analyses, significant differences were found</em> <em>between sentence types’ of </em><em>schizophrenic</em><em> patients’ and control group’s speech. Considering the use of simple sentences, it was revealed that patients with schizophrenia used more simple sentences than the control group in all tests.</em> <em>On the contrary, when complex and compound sentences were examined, patients with schizophrenia used less complex and compound sentences than the control group in all tests.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion. </em></strong><em>The linguistics deviations found from the study are thought to be</em><em> due to the schizophrenic thought disorder’s four relatively independent components: delusion; intrinsic thinking disturbance; formal thought disorder; and deficient real-world knowledge – a new concept</em>.</p> Ayşegül Özcan Vural Gülmira Kuruoğlu Köksal Alptekin Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-04 2022-03-04 32 2 95 115 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-2-95-115 Deception in a Written Text: Means of Detection https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1163 <p><strong><em>The purpose of the study</em></strong><em> is to use empirical data to detect verbal signs of falsehood/deceit/fib or, conversely, veracity in written texts. The data are taken from authentic texts written in two languages: Ukrainian (mother tongue) and English (first foreign language). </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> Two hundred students voluntarily took part in the psycholinguistic empirical research. They were asked to describe events on a given topic in two language backgrounds (Ukrainian or English), one of them holding true information and the other message being false. Consequently, 15 markers that are likely to point at the falsity of the written text were identified. Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon’s T-test were used to categorize a statistically significant difference, as well as Spearman's correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between the indicators.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The experiment data confirmed that regardless of the language (either Ukrainian or English) texts with true statements tend to be longer than the ones containing false information in most cases. They are also more intensively filled with emotional-sensory and spatial details, contain numerous references to the speaker’s opinion, experience, feelings (self-reference). False statements</em> <em>tend to actualize concepts different from those that are conveyed in true texts written by the same author on the same topic. The analytical </em><em>comparison of Ukrainian and English texts written by Ukrainian students showed that falsehood markers in the latter embrace ‘abundant’ lexical diversity (type-token ratio), irrelevance and/or redundancy of information, repetitions, and infrequent numerals. Ukrainian written texts containing untrue information, however, demonstrated violations in the chronology of events as well as context changes unjustified by the narrative perspective. Evidence shows that the following features were statistically insignificant, though present in ‘false’ written speech for both languages. These include the proportion between the prologue’s length to the entire text volume; the use of modifying adverbs; the use of ambiguous, non-specific nominations; spontaneous corrections in writing; frequent use of pronouns (the first person plural as well as the third person singular and plural).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> Statistical evidence shows that a number of verbal units help distinguish a false written text from a true one, despite the fact that by its nature false speech is a hidden code and imitation of any type of true speech. However, these criteria differ for texts written in the native and foreign languages, namely in Ukrainian and English.</em></p> Liliia Tereshchenko Svitlana Gladio Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-04 2022-03-04 32 2 116 136 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-2-116-136 The Study of the Genesis of Internet Texts Understanding in Adolescence Depending on the Level of Mental and Speech Development https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1180 <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong><em>.</em></strong> <em>The article presents the results of studying the specifics of the Internet texts understanding by young readers. The peculiarities of the genesis of</em> <em>the Internet texts understanding depending on the level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em><em> are studied. The regularities of the dynamics of success</em><em>ful</em><em> understanding with the growth of the level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em><em> at each stage of the understanding process are revealed. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials &amp; Methods</em></strong><strong><em>. </em></strong><em>Theoretical (deduction, induction, analysis, synthesis, generalization, systematization), empirical (experiment, method of semantic and pragmatic interpretations, content analysis; subjective scaling) and statistical methods (primary statistics, correlation analysis) were used for this purpose. The sample of the experiment consisted of 122 males and females. The study of the specifics of understanding and the level of Internet using experience were conducted according to the author’s method “Success of understanding the texts of the Internet”. This method is presented in the article. The study found that the Internet texts understanding in adolescence is characterized by the activity of reception (indicating their significant interest in the cyberspace), superficial assessment of the text complexity and the tendency to predict the content by title and illustration. </em><em>At the interpretation stage the qualitative criterion is adequacy, and the quantitative criterion is the completeness of the interpretation of the sense dominant. At the stage of emotional identification the success of understanding is determined by the adequacy of the&nbsp;assessing of the text understandability and the consistency of the emotional attitude to the Internet texts.</em><em> The level of </em><em>thinking and speech development </em><em>of respondents was determined using a number of standardized tests, including the Ebbinghaus test, the method of “Establishing patterns” by Pokrovsky, KOT (short indicative screening test, intelligence diagnostic test).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>As a result of the study, it was determined that the subjects with the high level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em> <em>read the Internet texts more actively and can more accurately predict the content of the text by picture, worse by title. The success of interpretation also improves with the level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em><em>, regardless of the type of Internet text. At the stage of emotional identification of the genesis of Internet text understanding is determined by the level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em><em> only in relation to the consistency of emotional </em><em>attitude</em><em>, which depends on the specifics of the Internet text.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>It is proved that the level of </em><em>thinking </em><em>and speech development of young people affects the success of their understanding of Internet texts. This influence is especially noticeable at the stages of reception and interpretation. At the stage of emotional identification, the level of </em><em>thinking </em><em>and speech development affects only the consistency of emotional </em><em>attitude </em><em>and only in relation to certain types of Internet texts. </em></p> Nataliia Akimova Alina Akimova Anastasiya Akimova Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 32 2 6 24 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-1-6-24 Psycholinguistics of Organizational Phenomena: A Case of the Managerial Culture Study https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1273 <p><strong><em>Purpose. </em></strong><em>This article is devoted to the case study of relevant linguacultural stereotypes of the particular organization’s managerial culture and based on corresponding results the inquiry of the discourses formation features associated with the lexico-semantic meanings dispersion of (Foucault).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and Procedure of Research</em></strong><em>. Top managers of a large Ukrainian enterprise (67 respondents) were asked to arbitrarily describe the following concepts </em><em>–</em><em> “manager”, “subordinate”, “managerial style”. Each concept was differentiated according to the principle of the lexico-semantic opposition (“productive&nbsp;</em><em>–</em><em>&nbsp;counterproductive”). The obtained set of texts was lemmatized and a frequency analysis of the lemmas was carried out as well. Collocations were also evaluated, in particular, repeated n-grams were identified.&nbsp; In the further analysis were used all detected n-grams and those lemmas, the observed frequencies of which statistically significantly exceeded the expected ones.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. Discourse formation features are determined by the paradigmatic relations of lexico-semantic units (words) and their semantic linear compatibility. The paradigmatic dispersion of a discourse is represented by the quality of connections between lemmas according to the criterion of the paradigm types to be found. Also informative is the assessment of the lemmas number (granularity of the discourse) and the spectrum diversity of paradigmatic relations in the discourse. These parameters reflect the properties of homogeneity/complexity of discourse meanings dispersion. The syntagmatic dissemination of discourse is manifested by the features of the words semantic linear interrelationship in each n-gram. This parameter reflects the quality of rationalizations (verbal-logical chains) associated with the corresponding discourses. The length of n-grams (the number of words) is also indicative – the higher n, the more differentiated the discourse is and vice versa. Matching the words semantics in n-grams with lemmas allows one to draw a conclusion regarding the internal consistency (integration) of the discourse.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. Psycholinguistic tools can be effectively used in an organizational phenomena study. In particular, the frequency analysis of lemmas, their lexico-semantic evaluation, as well as the qualitative analysis of n-grams in the problem-targeted texts of respondents allows one to solve applied research issues related to the assessment of current linguacultural trends in an organization and understanding their possible causes. Managerial culture, as a linguacultural phenomenon, is represented by a set of stably reproduced discourses in the process of the organization’s functioning. At the same time, discourses are constituted by the dispersion of meanings (words), which is being realized in two linguistic dimensions – paradigmatic and syntagmatic ones.</em></p> Vitalii Shymko Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 32 2 173 186 10.31470/2309-1797-2022-31-1-173-186