PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Psycholinguistics Journal publishes refereed articles dealing with psychological, anthropological, linguistic, social communication and psychodidactic aspects of psycholinguistics en-US (Nataliia Kharchenko) (Usenko Pavel) Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Sociolinguistic and Extralinguistic Aspects of the Functioning of the Trilingualism in the Oil Industry of Kazakhstan <p><strong><em>The purpose of the research.</em></strong><em> This paper describes the linguistic situation in the oil industry of Kazakhstan. The linguistic situation in the oil industry of Kazakhstan is characterized by functioning of the trilingualism with three languages being used simultaneously </em><em>–</em> <em>Kazakh, Russian and English. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and procedure of research.</em></strong><em> A survey was conducted among industry staff for the level identification of Kazakh-Russian-English trilingualism. Based on questionnaire method, we interviewed 600 oil industry specialists comparing the level of proficiency in the second and third languages, identifying the level of activity and particular spheres of communication for L1, L2, L3 for informants with different socio-demographic characteristics as well as individual motivations when choosing, studying and using the second and third languages </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong><em>.</em></strong> <em>Obtained records point out that the forms of interaction of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages are far from being similar. Kazakhs who do not know their native language, but only understand certain phrases make up 2.7%. Statistical data analysis revealed that 80.6% of Kazakhs are fluent in Russian, 1.4% of Kazakhs do not know Russian, 1</em><em>.0</em><em>% of Kazakhs are able to understand certain phrases. The age groups of 21-25, 26-35, and 36-45 have the highest English speakers percentage.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. The Kazakh-Russian-English trilingualism is widespread among representatives of various social and professional groups of the oil industry, who speak their native Kazakh and Russian languages fluently, and also know how to communicate in English</em><em>.</em></p> Kulpash Koptleuova, Balgenzhе Karagulova, Bagila Muratbek, Mairagul Kushtayeva, Kulshat Kondybay Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Sun, 10 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Peculiarities of External Speech Operations in Narrative Speech of Senior Preschool Children <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong><em> The purpose of the study was to investigate the state and levels of development of external speech operations of the development of external speech operations in lexical and grammatical structuring in the narrative speech of older preschool children. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Research methods and techniques</em></strong><em>. The research used theoretical methods: analysis of psycholinguistic and psychological literature, generalization of data obtained as a result of analysis, isolation and substantiation of criteria and indicators of psycholinguistic diagnosis of the state and levels of external speech operations development in older preschool children, drawing conclusions; empirical methods: conversations with preschool children, analysis of children’s stories, content analysis, ascertaining (study of the level of narrative speech development in preschool children) experiment; methods of mathematical statistics. In order to diagnose the development of external speech operations in narrative speech, the following methods and techniques were used: sentence ending technique, directed associative experiment of I.L.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Baskakova, V.P.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Hlukhova, technique “Tell by the picture” of R.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Nemov, method of psychographic analysis of I.M.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Lushchykhina, V.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>K.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Haida, V.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>V.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Loskutova. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results of children’s narrative speech observation reveal the features and levels of external speech operations development in lexical and grammatical structuring in older preschool children, the uniqueness of children’s external speech, characteristic for each of the selected levels, show that each child who develops normally has an inherent individual uneven development of narrative operations and actions. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The conclusion about statistically significant differences was made by comparing the obtained empirical indicators with the critical value of Student’s t-test. Analysis of the state of external speech operations development of narrative speech in older preschool children created the preconditions for the allocation of four levels of these speech operations development: high, sufficient, medium, and low.</em></p> Yuliia Krolivets Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Sun, 03 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Specifics of Perception of Phonetic Nonce Words by Readers in the Structure of Modern Poetical Discourse <p><strong><em>Introduction. </em></strong><em>The</em> <em>article</em> <em>deals</em> <em>with</em> <em>the</em> <em>results</em> <em>of</em> <em>three</em> <em>psycholinguistic</em> <em>experiments</em><em>.</em> <em>The</em> <em>purpose</em> <em>of</em> <em>this</em> <em>research</em> <em>is</em> <em>to</em> <em>determine</em> <em>the</em> <em>influence</em> <em>of</em> <em>specific</em> <em>linguistic</em> <em>units</em><em> – </em><em>phonetic</em> <em>nonce</em> <em>words</em><em> – </em><em>on</em> <em>the</em> <em>perception</em> <em>of</em> <em>modern</em> <em>Ukrainian</em> <em>poetical</em> <em>discourse</em> <em>by</em> <em>addressees</em><em> (</em><em>readers</em><em>).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>The</em> <em>main</em> <em>methods</em> <em>for</em> <em>selection</em> <em>of</em> <em>research material are observation, continuous sampling method, contextually method.</em> <em>The experimental part of our research includes such methods: method of free associative experiment, method of directed associative experiment, method of semantic differential. The obtained results are processed using the quantitative counting method.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>As</em> <em>stimulus</em> <em>for</em> <em>linguistic</em> <em>analysis</em> <em>of</em> <em>phonetic</em> <em>occasional</em> <em>units</em> <em>in</em> <em>modern</em> <em>Ukrainian</em> <em>poetical</em> <em>discourse</em> <em>we</em> <em>used</em> <em>the</em> <em>most</em> <em>frequent</em> <em>phonetic</em> <em>nonce</em> <em>words</em> <em>in</em> <em>their</em> <em>graphic</em> <em>actualization</em> <em>(total </em><em>16 </em><em>different stimuli</em><em>). </em><em>The</em> <em>three</em> <em>experimentally</em> <em>groups</em> <em>of</em> <em>respondents</em> <em>include</em><em> 105 </em><em>students</em> <em>of</em> <em>three</em> <em>Poltava</em> <em>high</em> <em>schools. As</em> <em>a</em> <em>result</em> <em>of</em> <em>these</em> <em>experiments</em> <em>we</em> <em>used</em><em> 1684 </em><em>reactions</em><em>, </em><em>among</em> <em>them</em><em> 1146 (68</em><em>.0</em><em>%) – </em><em>positive</em><em>і, 300 (18</em><em>.0</em><em>%) – </em><em>negative</em><em>, 238 (14</em><em>.0</em><em>%) – </em><em>neutral</em><em>. </em><em>The</em> <em>lowest</em> <em>percent</em> <em>of</em> <em>neutral</em> <em>reactions</em> <em>is</em> <em>absolutely</em> <em>motivated</em><em>, </em><em>because</em> <em>phonetic</em> <em>nonce</em> <em>words</em> <em>are</em> <em>power</em> <em>intensifiers</em> <em>for</em> <em>the</em> <em>expressiveness</em> <em>of</em> <em>sound</em> <em>background</em> <em>in</em> <em>poetical</em> <em>discourse</em><em>. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>Phonetic</em> <em>nonce</em> <em>words</em> <em>make</em> <em>a</em> <em>positive</em> <em>influence</em> <em>on perception of modern verbal discourse by addressees. The special role in decoding of sound information belongs to acoustic-articulator characteristics of vowels and consonants. Our future researches we will connect with the organization of free associative experiments for different social and age groups of respondents. Such experiment will determine the real state of cultural tendencies in the perception of modern ‘art of the word’ by Ukrainians. </em></p> Yuliia Hryshko Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Wed, 16 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Psychosemantics of the Concept of “Mental Health” in the Language Consciousness of Students of Pedagogical Specialties <p><strong><em>Purpose</em></strong><em>. The article, in accordance with the purpose of the study, describes the results of psycholinguistic and frame analysis of the concept of “mental health” in the language consciousness of future teachers. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> The study used the method of free associative experiment and the method of incomplete sentences, namely the construction “mental health”. The sample consisted of first- and second-year students of pedagogical specialties of three universities of Ukraine. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The psycholinguistic analysis of the concept of “mental health” by the method of free associative experiment revealed that students of pedagogical specialties mainly describe this concept by the following associations: “balance”, “calm” and “harmony”. Peripheral reactions predominate among the associations obtained, which indicates that students of pedagogical specialties do not have a single understanding of the concept of “mental health” and the dominance of subjective ideas about it, based on previous experience. Psycholinguistic analysis of the obtained associations with the concept of “mental health”, according to the grammatical criterion, showed the predominance of paradigmatic grammatical associations, which indicates the development of respondents' complex and analytical thinking, which are characteristic of future teachers. The thematic analysis of the obtained associations showed their significant thematic diversity, which indicates the diversity of higher education students' ideas about the concept of “mental health”. Frame analysis of the text made it possible to identify three leading categories in defining the concept of “mental health”: psyche, factors and activities. It is established that the most represented in the definition of the concept of “mental health” is the frame of the psyche, and the smallest in number was the concept of the frame of activity. By highlighting the most frequent words in each frame, a script of the studied text was constructed to understand the concept of “mental health”: internal state and level of well-being – factor – behavior. The discourse script clearly demonstrates the understanding of the essence of the concept of “mental health”, its causality and ways of preservation.</em></p> Hanna Ivaniuk, Іnna Melnyk, Tamara Proshkuratova Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Mon, 14 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Dialogue in In-Depth Cognition of the Subject’s Psyche: Functioning of Pragmatic Referent Statements <p><strong><em>The aim </em></strong><em>of our research was also to analyze the dialogue in in-depth cognition of the subject’s psyche in the psycholinguistic paradigm. The latter allows us to distinguish pragmatic-explicit and pragmatic-implicit reference statements in psychoanalytic dialogues, to classify such statements, to give their characteristics, which will further help psychoanalysts to build dialogues with patients in psychotherapeutic practice.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>In our research we’ve used author’s Psychodynamic Methodology of organizing of psychotherapeutic process, which contributes to the problem of understanding the essence of the patient’s psyche. The improvement of diagnostic tools stipulated the clarification of the focus of the process of active socio-psychological cognition on optimizing the psyche of the patient in the psychotherapeutic process. Also we proposed group method of active socio-psychological cognition (hereinafter referred to as the ASPC)</em> <em>which emphasized on a law of positive disintegration of the psyche of the person and its secondary integration at a higher level of mental development of a man (Yatsenko, 2020).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>.</em><em> The nature of</em> <em>emphasized by us pragmatic-implicit reference statements, the peculiarities of their functioning in the whole text fragment will resemble semantic performatives. In the paradigm of pragmatic statements, we will accept them as pragmatic statements. Although both pragmatic-implicit and pragmatic-explicit reference statements are very important for psychoanalytic dialogues. Pragmatic-explicit reference statements have all the features of performatives and can be fully characterized as pragmatic performatives.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> It was proved that positive pragmatic-explicit and pragmatic-implicit reference statements in psychoanalytic dialogue allowed us to identify the links between superficial and hidden semantic parameters of the patient’s psyche, which under the conditions of comprehension of his/her consciousness can open up prospects for their individual reconstruction by the subject, without the psychoanalyst’s help. This process facilitates the harmonization and functional optimization of the psyche of the person in in-depth correctional process. This way of solving a problem by a person sets the awakening of adequate capabilities of the subject, making by the patients’ some adjustments to their own behavior by expanding and deepening the boundaries of self-awareness in the process of active socio-psychological cognition.</em></p> Tamara Yatsenko, Ernest Ivashkevych, Lyubov Halushko; Larysa Kulakova Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Sat, 12 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Individual Verbal Codes of Spontaneous Emotional Psychoregulation of Modern Ukrainian Youth <p><strong><em>The purpose </em></strong><em>of the article</em> <em>is to analyze the ways of verbal emotional regulation of modern Ukrainian youth and to outline ways to improve their psycholinguistic hygiene. To achieve this goal, the following tasks were performed: </em><em>(</em><em>1)</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>the typical verbal reactions of modern Ukrainian youth to stressful stimuli were clarified; </em><em>(2</em><em>)</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>the features of youth spontaneous response to stress were compared with the usual formulas of Ukrainian linguistic culture of psychological self-defense</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and </em></strong><strong><em>T</em></strong><strong><em>echniques</em></strong><em>. </em><em>The investigation is grounded on the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, descriptive, questionnaire, communicative-pragmatic analysis, comparative method (to compare different verbal reactions of respondent), and the quantitative method (to determine the dominant forms of emotional response of young people).</em> <em>The comprehensive methodology was used: monitoring of scientific sources, experimental modeling of stressful situations, interviewing students, analysis of their spontaneous reactions, testing of various forms of influence on youth emotional verbal reactions, formulation of conclusions</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>.</em> <em>Based on the questionnaire, the author concludes about the mostly unconscious attitude of modern Ukrainian youth to forms of emotional response, as their spontaneous speech shows widespread use of non-normative, stylistically reduced units and limited use of traditional emotional exclamations, paremias or ironic expressions. Young people show more empathy in the psychoregulation of others than in relation to themselves. The author recommends cultivating in the youth environment communicative tactics of support, inspiration, outlining a positive perspective, emotional empathy and explaining the ineffectiveness of devaluation tactics, correcting of the addressee's behavior by a negative imperative.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong> <em>The article substantiates the importance of forming emotional competence of modern Ukrainian youth in higher education institutions, diversification and modernization of educational material, giving more attention to tactics and strategies of communication and analysis virtual forms of communication. The author emphasizes the need to develop students' meaningful attitude to their own speech and apply an active and creative approach to finding expressive and at the same time acceptable codes of emotional self-expression. The paper suggests practical recommendations to weaning students from vulgar and non-normative emotional reactions.</em></p> Myroslava Bahan, Maryna Navalna, Alla Istomina Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Image of the World and Human in the Paradigm of Digital Culture: Psycholinguistic Analysis <p><strong><em>Introduction.</em></strong><em> The article presents a psycholinguistic analysis of a new concept of man in the situation of digital reality as a new image of the world. </em></p> <p><strong><em>The objective of the study </em></strong><em>is to consider the possibilities of transformational linguistics in determining the psycholinguistic essence of semantic and mental structures of modern linguistic norms and interpersonal communication in the process of forming a new concept of man. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods. </em></strong><em>The study is based on the methodology of modern </em><em>psychological, genetic-epistemological, philosophical-anthropological and linguistic theoretical reflections</em><em>. Their elaboration involved the methods of projective and cognitive linguistics in the process of analysis; their potential contributed to the identification of psycholinguistic features of linguistic communication in the era of </em><em>metamodernism.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>The problem of formation and development of a new concept of man (homo digitalis) in the conditions of digital reality is considered. The image of the world is conceptualized, which in psycholinguistics is perceived by the human mind as a reflection of reality mediated by objectivity and the corresponding cognitive schemes and reflections. The factor of influencing digital technologies on psychology and changing the ways of language communication is revealed. The peculiarities of modern man's realization of his creative abilities in linguistic-cognitive-epistemic activity in the process of actual perception of the image of the world are clarified. Shifting the emphasis to network communication is proved to lead to the loss of the human system of landmarks necessary for productive activities in the complexities and contradictions of the multidimensional digital world. The solution to this problem lies in the potential of transformational linguistics, its possibilities being the factor in understanding the new concept of man and his activities at the level of scientific understanding of the world. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>Psycholinguistic analysis of the concept of man in the situation of the new image of the world reveals the prospects for the active entry of modern culture of speech and communication in the parameters of digital reality. Psycholinguistic substantiation of this process in the context of transformational linguistics is an important step in identifying the intellectual and cognitive capabilities of a new concept of man as a result of the real perception of the digital world. </em></p> Vasyl Kremen, Volodymyr Ilyin Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Sat, 05 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Grammatical Processing in Schizoprenia: Analysis on Sentence Structure <p><strong><em>Objective.</em></strong> <em>Language disorder is one of the most significant symptom domains that characterizes Schizophrenia Disorder. The aim of the present study carried out considering language deviations is to investigate and compare the </em><em>schizophrenic</em><em> patients’ and control group’s speech in terms of sentence structure. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials</em></strong> <strong><em>and </em></strong><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>The sample of the study consists of 50 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4 (DSM-4) and 50 healthy subjects matched with these patients by age, gender and educational level. The narrative skills of the subjects in the study were evaluated with four oral expression tests, which were </em><em>narrative picture test, story picture sequencing test, semi-structured speech test, and free speech test.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. </em><em>As a result of the </em><em>statistical and linguistic analyses, significant differences were found</em> <em>between sentence types’ of </em><em>schizophrenic</em><em> patients’ and control group’s speech. Considering the use of simple sentences, it was revealed that patients with schizophrenia used more simple sentences than the control group in all tests.</em> <em>On the contrary, when complex and compound sentences were examined, patients with schizophrenia used less complex and compound sentences than the control group in all tests.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion. </em></strong><em>The linguistics deviations found from the study are thought to be</em><em> due to the schizophrenic thought disorder’s four relatively independent components: delusion; intrinsic thinking disturbance; formal thought disorder; and deficient real-world knowledge – a new concept</em>.</p> Ayşegül Özcan Vural, Gülmira Kuruoğlu, Köksal Alptekin Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 04 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Deception in a Written Text: Means of Detection <p><strong><em>The purpose of the study</em></strong><em> is to use empirical data to detect verbal signs of falsehood/deceit/fib or, conversely, veracity in written texts. The data are taken from authentic texts written in two languages: Ukrainian (mother tongue) and English (first foreign language). </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong><em> Two hundred students voluntarily took part in the psycholinguistic empirical research. They were asked to describe events on a given topic in two language backgrounds (Ukrainian or English), one of them holding true information and the other message being false. Consequently, 15 markers that are likely to point at the falsity of the written text were identified. Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon’s T-test were used to categorize a statistically significant difference, as well as Spearman's correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between the indicators.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The experiment data confirmed that regardless of the language (either Ukrainian or English) texts with true statements tend to be longer than the ones containing false information in most cases. They are also more intensively filled with emotional-sensory and spatial details, contain numerous references to the speaker’s opinion, experience, feelings (self-reference). False statements</em> <em>tend to actualize concepts different from those that are conveyed in true texts written by the same author on the same topic. The analytical </em><em>comparison of Ukrainian and English texts written by Ukrainian students showed that falsehood markers in the latter embrace ‘abundant’ lexical diversity (type-token ratio), irrelevance and/or redundancy of information, repetitions, and infrequent numerals. Ukrainian written texts containing untrue information, however, demonstrated violations in the chronology of events as well as context changes unjustified by the narrative perspective. Evidence shows that the following features were statistically insignificant, though present in ‘false’ written speech for both languages. These include the proportion between the prologue’s length to the entire text volume; the use of modifying adverbs; the use of ambiguous, non-specific nominations; spontaneous corrections in writing; frequent use of pronouns (the first person plural as well as the third person singular and plural).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> Statistical evidence shows that a number of verbal units help distinguish a false written text from a true one, despite the fact that by its nature false speech is a hidden code and imitation of any type of true speech. However, these criteria differ for texts written in the native and foreign languages, namely in Ukrainian and English.</em></p> Liliia Tereshchenko , Svitlana Gladio Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Fri, 04 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Study of the Genesis of Internet Texts Understanding in Adolescence Depending on the Level of Mental and Speech Development <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong><em>.</em></strong> <em>The article presents the results of studying the specifics of the Internet texts understanding by young readers. The peculiarities of the genesis of</em> <em>the Internet texts understanding depending on the level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em><em> are studied. The regularities of the dynamics of success</em><em>ful</em><em> understanding with the growth of the level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em><em> at each stage of the understanding process are revealed. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials &amp; Methods</em></strong><strong><em>. </em></strong><em>Theoretical (deduction, induction, analysis, synthesis, generalization, systematization), empirical (experiment, method of semantic and pragmatic interpretations, content analysis; subjective scaling) and statistical methods (primary statistics, correlation analysis) were used for this purpose. The sample of the experiment consisted of 122 males and females. The study of the specifics of understanding and the level of Internet using experience were conducted according to the author’s method “Success of understanding the texts of the Internet”. This method is presented in the article. The study found that the Internet texts understanding in adolescence is characterized by the activity of reception (indicating their significant interest in the cyberspace), superficial assessment of the text complexity and the tendency to predict the content by title and illustration. </em><em>At the interpretation stage the qualitative criterion is adequacy, and the quantitative criterion is the completeness of the interpretation of the sense dominant. At the stage of emotional identification the success of understanding is determined by the adequacy of the&nbsp;assessing of the text understandability and the consistency of the emotional attitude to the Internet texts.</em><em> The level of </em><em>thinking and speech development </em><em>of respondents was determined using a number of standardized tests, including the Ebbinghaus test, the method of “Establishing patterns” by Pokrovsky, KOT (short indicative screening test, intelligence diagnostic test).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>As a result of the study, it was determined that the subjects with the high level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em> <em>read the Internet texts more actively and can more accurately predict the content of the text by picture, worse by title. The success of interpretation also improves with the level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em><em>, regardless of the type of Internet text. At the stage of emotional identification of the genesis of Internet text understanding is determined by the level of </em><em>thinking and speech development</em><em> only in relation to the consistency of emotional </em><em>attitude</em><em>, which depends on the specifics of the Internet text.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>It is proved that the level of </em><em>thinking </em><em>and speech development of young people affects the success of their understanding of Internet texts. This influence is especially noticeable at the stages of reception and interpretation. At the stage of emotional identification, the level of </em><em>thinking </em><em>and speech development affects only the consistency of emotional </em><em>attitude </em><em>and only in relation to certain types of Internet texts. </em></p> Nataliia Akimova, Alina Akimova, Anastasiya Akimova Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Thu, 03 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Psycholinguistics of Organizational Phenomena: A Case of the Managerial Culture Study <p><strong><em>Purpose. </em></strong><em>This article is devoted to the case study of relevant linguacultural stereotypes of the particular organization’s managerial culture and based on corresponding results the inquiry of the discourses formation features associated with the lexico-semantic meanings dispersion of (Foucault).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and Procedure of Research</em></strong><em>. Top managers of a large Ukrainian enterprise (67 respondents) were asked to arbitrarily describe the following concepts </em><em>–</em><em> “manager”, “subordinate”, “managerial style”. Each concept was differentiated according to the principle of the lexico-semantic opposition (“productive&nbsp;</em><em>–</em><em>&nbsp;counterproductive”). The obtained set of texts was lemmatized and a frequency analysis of the lemmas was carried out as well. Collocations were also evaluated, in particular, repeated n-grams were identified.&nbsp; In the further analysis were used all detected n-grams and those lemmas, the observed frequencies of which statistically significantly exceeded the expected ones.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. Discourse formation features are determined by the paradigmatic relations of lexico-semantic units (words) and their semantic linear compatibility. The paradigmatic dispersion of a discourse is represented by the quality of connections between lemmas according to the criterion of the paradigm types to be found. Also informative is the assessment of the lemmas number (granularity of the discourse) and the spectrum diversity of paradigmatic relations in the discourse. These parameters reflect the properties of homogeneity/complexity of discourse meanings dispersion. The syntagmatic dissemination of discourse is manifested by the features of the words semantic linear interrelationship in each n-gram. This parameter reflects the quality of rationalizations (verbal-logical chains) associated with the corresponding discourses. The length of n-grams (the number of words) is also indicative – the higher n, the more differentiated the discourse is and vice versa. Matching the words semantics in n-grams with lemmas allows one to draw a conclusion regarding the internal consistency (integration) of the discourse.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. Psycholinguistic tools can be effectively used in an organizational phenomena study. In particular, the frequency analysis of lemmas, their lexico-semantic evaluation, as well as the qualitative analysis of n-grams in the problem-targeted texts of respondents allows one to solve applied research issues related to the assessment of current linguacultural trends in an organization and understanding their possible causes. Managerial culture, as a linguacultural phenomenon, is represented by a set of stably reproduced discourses in the process of the organization’s functioning. At the same time, discourses are constituted by the dispersion of meanings (words), which is being realized in two linguistic dimensions – paradigmatic and syntagmatic ones.</em></p> Vitalii Shymko Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Psycholinguistic Paradigm of the Medical Staff – Patients Communicative Interaction in the Conditions of COVID-19 in Ukraine and Scotland <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong> <em>The purpose</em><em> of this research is, based on the results of our empirical research, to determine the psycholinguistic paradigms</em> <em>of</em> <em>the</em> <em>Medical</em> <em>staff</em><em> – </em><em>Patients</em> <em>communicative</em> <em>interaction</em> <em>in</em> <em>the</em> <em>conditions</em> <em>of</em> <em>COVID</em><em>-19 in</em> <em>Ukraine</em> <em>and</em> <em>Scotland, in particular in the context of the perception of the emotional concepts by respondents.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>The main method of our research is a psycholinguistic experiment, the main stage of which was the exemplification experiment. It is the experiment that allows us to make a specific idea of the concept, the result of which is the selection of a set of lexical units representing some object. As additional methods we used oral interviews and questionnaires for the method of psychological diagnosis of “The Methodology for the psychological diagnostics of coping mechanisms” by Heim (2022).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>.</em><em> Among the main associations of Ukrainians we should note a lexical unit “to die”, which is the most frequent characteristics of the youngest respondents</em> <em>(in age of 31–55 years old). In addition their behavior is also characterized by a reaction of “fear” – “to be scared”, “to fade” (relevant for people from 31 to 77 years old), “to complain”, “to suffer” (they are typical for respondents of 31–55 years old).</em> <em>Respondents of all age groups who were treated at Western General Hospital in Edinburgh (Scotland) recorded categorically different aspects of the unit “fear” by derivative word-forming units which explain: a personal state of the individual: synonymous adjectives “fearful” and “fearsome” – full of fear; traits of the character of the person (which in 96.69% of cases belonged to the Medical Staff, and only 1.54% of cases – to patients); negative assessment of the threat object; a manner of the person’s behavior.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> Ukrainian patients’ perception of “bad news” should be divided into two phases: the first one is existential. It is characterized by fear, despair, destruction of life plans. The second phase is mobilization, when personal resources are activated, including their adaptive and relatively adaptive coping, and “bad news” is a trigger for fight with the disease COVID-19.</em> <em>Respondents from Scotland think that</em> <em>archilexem of field “fear” is a diffuse unit “a fear of COVID-19” with a lot of meanings, which plays the role of hyperonym for all other synonyms which have the function of nominees of fear. We are talking about the actualization of conceptual structures of the meanings of synonyms which denote the forms of prototype emotion “a fear of getting sick with COVID-19”.</em></p> Nataliia Mykhalchuk, Valeriy Zlyvkov, Svitlana Lukomska, Alexander Nabochuk , Nina Khrystych Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Tue, 01 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Acquisition of Basic Word Order by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong><em> This paper reports on an investigation of Arabic word order acquisition by twelve Jordanian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the reasons for this order of acquisition. This study researched the following questions: </em><em>(</em><em>1</em><em>).</em><em>&nbsp;Which word order do Jordanian Arabic speaking children with ASD prefer?</em><em> (</em><em>2</em><em>)</em><em>.&nbsp;Why do children with ASD prefer this word order?</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and Procedure.</em></strong><em> The study sample consisted of 12 autistic children (mean age of nine, two females, ten males) attending Tawasul Center for Autism, Amman, Jordan. Such a ratio is logical since there are more male than female autistic children, as concluded in multiple studies. In the present study, the participants’ native language is JA, which facilitated communication between the children and researchers since the latter are also JA native speakers. The sample’s ASD severity level was moderate with a nonverbal IQ of around 45. These 12 children were selected because their L1 proficiency was approximately the same and their mental age was around 6, based on an annual test conducted by the center. In addition, none of these children had any specific language impairments, suggesting that the sample was homogenous and heterogeneous regarding language skills. Concerning ethical approval, consent was obtained from the center and the children’s parents to conduct the tests on the children in the center. Participants from the </em><em>Tawasul Center for Autism in Amman, Jordan</em><em>, were asked to describe what they saw in ten different pictures and their responses were recorded. These responses can be divided into two types: SV word order and VS word order.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. The results indicate that SV word order structures were used more often than VS structures. The results of the t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between the two in favor of subject-verb-object (SVO) order. We argue that the SVO word order is used more frequently by children with ASD due to the noun bias principle. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. Based on the analysis, SVO sentences were used more than VSO sentences for many reasons; namely, the basic word order of the linguistic input in the surrounding community, the noun bias principle, and the type of message being conveyed, i.e., entity-oriented messages. After administering a t-test, statistically significant differences were found between the results of the two word orders in favor of SVO word order.</em></p> Abdel Rahman Altakhaineh, Razan N Alkhatib, Hiba Alhendi Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Sat, 26 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 A Quantitative Analysis of the Students’ Experience with Digital Media in L2 Acquisition <p><strong><em>Aim.</em></strong><em> Foreign language education widely utilizes various forms of eLearning or blended learning techniques and tools, and this trend has recently been supported and speeded up by the global pandemics of COVID-19. The study attempts to analyse the students’ experience with the use of digital media used for foreign language education with the aim of providing clear implications needed for future digital (online) language higher education.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methodology.</em></strong><em> The methodology used to collect data was a questionnaire distributed online to the students of the University of Diyala in Iraq in July 2021 with n=394 making it a very representative and statistically relevant sample. Five hypotheses (H) were created and tested with these results. (H1) there is no correlation between a well-prepared teacher and subjective satisfaction of the students with online classes. </em><em>(<strong>H2</strong>) the students will significantly prefer traditional teaching to online L2 acquisition. (<strong>H3</strong>) there will be a correlation between increased screen time and students´ dissatisfaction with online learning. (<strong>H4</strong>) the more they have to use digital media, the more they will prefer print text for their L2 acquisition. (<strong>H5</strong>) the most important subjectively perceived negative aspect of online learning will be reduced communication possibilities both with the tutor and with their peers.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong> <em>The students significantly supported traditional foreign language techniques over digital ones despite the fact that the tutors were evaluated with very high grades by the students. Thus, the fact that the tutors are well prepared, they use modern technology and attempt to motivate the students very successfully, the final result of the online foreign language class did not prove to be parallel to the traditional class regarding students´ satisfaction. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The results could be important for applied linguistics and psycholinguistics as they provide a clear overview of the current state of affairs in L2 acquisition with the use of digital technologies, which is a crucial topic that is more and more important for the development of both psycholinguistics and applied linguistics. Despite the fact that this study deals only with the subjective satisfaction of the participants, it can be generalized and can be transferrable on a large geographical scale. This geographical limitation can be rectified by larger-scale research that can be initiated by this early study. There are many implications connected to these findings, such as moving towards non-digital learning tools, such as print textbooks, focusing on more personal discussions rather than just various online assignments. Moreover, the results of the study should be a contribution to the current scientific discussion about the development of psycholinguodidactics and its role in solving the problem of mastering foreign languages.</em></p> Marcel Pikhart, Liqaa Habeb Al-Obaydi, Mohsin Abdur Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 26 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Communicative Functions of Emojis: Evidence from Jordanian Arabic-Speaking Facebookers <p><strong><em>Purpose</em></strong><em>. This paper examines the communicative (also known as pragmatic) functions of the most common five emojis in the Jordanian context as perceived by Jordanian Facebook users. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>. The data were collected in four stages. First, the researcher shared a post on his Facebook account in which he asked his Jordanian-Arabic speaking virtual friends to report in a comment the most common emojis they use. The researcher compiled 174 comments</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>/</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>responses with 1716 emoji tokens. Second, the received tokens were used to identify the most common five emojis. Third, in order to identify the set of functions of each emoji, the researcher shared another post in which he asked the same previous group to report when each of them tends to press each emoji and for what purposes. Based on the received comments, a preliminary list of functions was prepared. Finally, the proposed functions were subjected to a validation process by two Jordanian-Arabic speaking linguists and three senior students from the Department of English at the University of Jordan. Most of their judgments were compatible with those of the researcher. To further validate the data, the acceptability of the identified functions were tested against the intuition of 261 Jordanian BA students at the University of Jordan. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. The findings show that the five most common emojis in the Jordanian context are (1)&nbsp;the Face With Tears of Joy, (2)&nbsp;the Red Heart, (3)&nbsp;the Slightly Smiling Face, (4)&nbsp;the Face Blowing a Kiss, and (5)&nbsp;the Winking Face. Furthermore, emojis are not only used to show emotions, but can also act as markers of illocutionary force, as face saving devices, and as boosters of rapport. The set of emojis examined in this study can be employed to perform 19 multiple illocutionary acts including but not limited to expressive acts (happiness, admiration, etc.), directive acts (e.g, directing the addressee to stop doing something) and declarative acts (e.g., threatening). Emojis are not solely used to convey the functions envisaged by their creators. Instead, with time, emojis start to drift extensively from their semantic import by acquiring a wide spectrum of new illocutions. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. The study concludes that although emojis are evolving and developing at a rapid pace, becoming more diverse, pervasive and integral in our daily communications, sharing even some of the characteristics of human language such as arbitrariness, they remain a mode of communication within computer-mediated communication (CMC). At this stage, they can mainly play the role of non-verbal cues that help us understand the intended message and function as a parallel lingua franca limited in domains of CMC.</em></p> Hady Hamdan Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Mon, 03 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Pragmatic Functions of the Idiomatic Expression Yalla in Jordanian Spoken Arabic <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong><em> The study reported here aims to identify and classify the pragmatic functions of the frequently used idiomatic expression Yalla, literally ‘let’s’, in Jordanian Spoken Arabic (JSA). </em></p> <p><strong><em>Method</em></strong><em>. The data were collected from 145 university students (males and females) enrolled in different specialisms at two higher education institutions, viz., the University of Jordan and Jadara University. All participants are native speakers of Jordanian Spoken Arabic; their ages ranged from 18 to 22 years. They were divided into three groups; 14 participants gave the data in the mini questionnaire stage which was used to guide and inform proper data collection, 86 completed the extended data collection questionnaire and 45 undertook the acceptability agreement/ judgment task. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The study reveals that Yalla conveys 23 pragmatic functions: showing approval&nbsp;/&nbsp;acceptance, signaling the start of an action, spreading enthusiasm, suggesting, commanding/ ordering someone, expediting/ urging, expressing surrender or submission, announcing the onset of a new stage, requesting approval, rest assuring, prompting someone to act in line with an established routine, advising coupled with warning, asking for patience/calming someone down, encouraging/ cheering, drawing attention, reminding, wishing, stimulating, underestimating the importance of a complaint, ridiculing/ mocking, expressing comfort, showing emphasis in addition to showing anger and boredom.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The study concludes that the functions of the idiomatic expression Yalla are not equally frequent; nor are they equally acceptable by the Jordanian youth. This is evident in the results of the acceptability judgment task undertaken by the participants, an indication that some of them are more deeply entrenched in the Jordanian youth community than others. The study suggests that future research may investigate the pragmatic functions of Yalla in social contexts and situations other than those examined in this study. It may also involve older age groups as Yalla is more likely to be age sensitive; education level may also turn out to impact the use of this idiomatic expression. Furthermore, as the focus of this study is on Jordanian Spoken Arabic, future research may target the pragmatic functions of Yalla in other Arabic spoken varieties, e.g., Egyptian, Syrian and Saudi, among others.</em></p> Jihad Hamdan, Dina Hammouri Copyright (c) 2022 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Mon, 03 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Psycholinguistic Potential of Political Concepts of the Election Campaign (on the example of the slogan-motto “Army. Language. Faith”) <p><strong><em>The aim</em></strong><em> of the study is a psycholinguistic analysis of the stimulus words (Ukrainian) army, language, faith as concept-forming nominations of the appropriate text concepts in the structure of the slogan-motto (advertising slogan, political slogan) “Army. Language. Faith.” the 2019 election campaign (that is, in the context of a particular discursive practice).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods of the research.</em></strong><em> The application of the method of free associative experiment basing on the theory of speech influence allows to interpret the semantics of the analyzed concepts, as well as to establish their closest connections and logical relationships with other concepts. Verbal reactions to a political slogan as a whole and to its individual structural units as concept-forming nominations are interpreted as verbal representations of cognitive features of concepts.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results of the associative experiment are a relevant source of data in order to identify markers of the deep (including subconscious) mechanisms of verbal and non-verbal behavior of individuals, which can be used to form new and transform old political concepts. The presence of intersecting segments in their semantic fields testifies about the partial synthesis of diverse concepts in the recipients’ minds, in which the effect of the psycholinguistic influence of the slogan-motto is increased. The absence of such an intersection is an indicator of the information the general information field of the concepts, which is expressed in the discrete perception of the advertising slogan.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>. In the context of the speech theory influence, the first two stages of implementation the text slogan-motto “Army. Language. Faith.” into mass consciousness (attracting attention to the text and optimization its perception) were successfully implemented. A number of reasons (extralinguistic and linguistic formation, for example, the use of words with abstract, non-specific semantics “language”, “faith”) complicated the implementation of the third stage (acceptance of the content) of the implication of the text. Concept-forming nomination “army”, potentially containing negative semantic components, caused reactions associated with the emergency of cognitive disbalance in the consciousness of individuals. Comparison of the associates of the two stages of the experiment showed that the context of perception of the stimulus words is important for the respondents. Thus, the evaluative connotations of reaction words (in particular, concerning the nomination “army”) in the context of the advertising campaign of P.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Poroshenko’s party and outside this context differ significantly.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Natalia Koch, Svitlana Kaleniuk Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Tue, 09 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Predicting EFL Learners’ Susceptibility to Various Disfluency Types Based on Gender and Age <p><em>The <strong>aim</strong> of the current study is to investigate the relationship of production of speech disfluencies in EFL learners based on gender and age through regression modeling. Gender and age have been examined to influence the production of disfluencies in both native and nonnative speakers so it’s an important issue since fluency and disfluency are crucial aspects of language learning, however, the influence of age and gender on disfluency remains a controversial issue with studies often producing conflicting results with one another. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods.</em></strong> <em>This study took a new approach to this subject as we produced regression models which can predict the likelihood of production of each disfluency type based on speakers’ age and gender. In order to do this 40 Iranian advanced EFL learners (20 male, 20 female) in four age groups (youth 19–24, young adults 25–30, adults 31–44, and older adults 45+) took part in the study. Later semi-structured interviews with a variety of questions regarding different topics were conducted and participants’ responses were first recorded and then transcribed. The frequency of occurrence of each disfluency type in participants’ speech samples formed our data. This data was then used for our regression analysis. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong> <em>Our findings indicated that, while filled pauses are the most frequently produced disfluency in both genders and all age groups, female speakers are more likely to produce hesitations in their speech compared to male speakers. We also found out that, older adults are less likely to produce filled pauses in their speech compared to younger speakers. With Further analyses, we also investigated the likelihood of producing certain disfluency types over other ones based on age and gender and how this may help instructors.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>.</em> <em>Based on our findings, it can be concluded that all six types of disfluencies are produced by the Iranian EFL learners. Also, we found that, filled pauses, hesitations, and repetitions are by far the most frequently produced disfluency types by Iranian EFL learners, respectively.</em></p> Amirmahdi Minavandchal , Mahmood Salimi Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Tue, 09 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0200 A Linguistic Profile of Narrative Speech in Early and Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease <p><strong><em>Objective.</em></strong><em> Alzheimer’s Dementia is defined as multiple impairments in cognitive functions and language impairment is one of the observed problems in this disease. In order to analyse these problems, narrative speech transcriptions of Turkish patients with early and late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) </em><em>and an age/education-matched control group </em><em>were examined.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials &amp; Methods.</em></strong><em> B</em><em>y using different language tests, the sentence production of Turkish patients with early (n: 23) and late-onset (n: 39) was examined and the results were compared within groups and within language tests. Our aim was to reveal the differences in sentence processing of Turkish Alzheimer patients. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>. According to the results, Turkish Alzheimer patients use short and simple sentences composed of fewer words in their speech. It was determined that these patients performed better in Picnic Picture Description test, which is thought to be easy to describe. In Cookie Theft Picture Description test, which is a complex one, and in the Subject-based Narration test, it was found that the speech amounts of AD patients were less. It was revealed that early-onset AD patients used shorter sentences including fewer words compared to late-onset AD patients. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion. </em></strong><em>In the light of the data obtained, it can be said that AD patients have different sentence processing than normal individuals because of the problems in the language and memory areas of the disease. The fact that sentence processing is different means that these patients do not prefer the types of sentences that normal individuals prefer in their speeches, and use less words and simpler sentences.</em></p> Eda Can, Gülmira Kuruoğlu Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 09 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Socio-Psycholinguistic Features of ‘till’/‘until’ Functioning in Present-Day English (Corpus-Based and Corpus-Driven Research) <p><strong><em>The aim of the research</em></strong><em>. The paper is to clarify the role of socio-psycholinguistic factors of lexical units ‘till’/‘until’ functioning in present-day English. The research is focused on the lexical units ‘till’/‘until’, which are the objects of functional transposition, as a result of which both units are determined and function as prepositions and conjunctions, are defined by the identical vocabulary definitions, derive from the same part of speech – preposition and undergo functional transposition into the category of conjunction. Nevertheless, they are characterized by a diverse level of institutionalization in the language, what is proved by the statistical data. Therefore we put forward the hypothesis that the divergences in applying the units depend on the socio-psycholinguistic factors, which characterize the speech at the present stage of the language development and determine the institutionalization level of any transpositional process.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>. </em><em>The analysis is represented by the corpus-based and corpus-driven research and is grounded on the data, retrieved from the British National Corpus (BNC) as the most balanced and representative source of written and oral extracts of the English language. Under the research, socio-psycholinguistic factors are divided into linguistic, viz. </em><em>discourse type, text type, derived text type, text domain, context-governed text domain and type of interaction, the level of difficulty, and socio-psychological factors, viz. age and gender of an author (for written discourse), age, gender, and social class of a speaker and respondent (for spoken discourse).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results and conclusion</em></strong><em>.</em> <em>The obtained data testify that there are almost no difference between the preposition and conjunction ‘till’, except for the authors’ and speakers’ age. The figures of the categories prove the further expansion of the preposition ‘till’. The preposition and conjunction ‘until’ are characterized by more profound divergences, in particular, on the side of linguistic factors. Taking into account the fact that socio-psychological factors determine the linguistic peculiarities of the language units in discourse, it is worth stating that the preposition ‘until’ is characterized by the lowest number of points of intersection with other units under study, which predetermines its potential for further analysis from the perspective of modern psycholinguistics.</em></p> Yurii Kovbasko, Lesya Ikalyuk Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Tue, 09 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Communicative Tolerance vs Communicative Intolerance as a Generative Problem <p><strong><em>Introduction.</em></strong><em> In the article the results of the evaluation of modern research on communicative tolerance (CT) and communicative intolerance (CI) of socionomic professions are discussed from the standpoint of the postulates and provisions of psycholinguistics. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Purpose. </em></strong><em>The purpose</em> <em>of the article is: </em><em>(</em><em>a)</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>to discuss the results of a systematic review and systematic evaluation of modern research on CT, which presents the scientific views of scientists from around the world on this issue; </em><em>(</em><em>b)</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>identification how much in studies that, by their name, claim to solve the CT problem, is really revealed the speech-language aspect of communication, which belongs to the competence of psycholinguistics and serves its further development as an applied science. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods and Techniques</em></strong><em>. In the process of monitoring modern research on this issue it was used a set of theoretical methods: (a)&nbsp;a systematic review and systematic analysis of publications published in journals included in the “Scopus” and “Web of Science”; (b)&nbsp;classification of analyzed studies; (c)&nbsp;systematization of the received qualitative indicators and generalization of the results of inspection and the analysis; (d)&nbsp;research synthesis and formulation of conclusions. The concept of the study contains a number of psycholinguistic provisions that illuminate the author’s understanding of the observed phenomena, reveals the methodological approaches on which the methodology of this investigation is based, and provides research actions on heuristic, analytical and evaluation algorithms. According to the specified algorithms the research technique is realized on stages: (1)&nbsp;search; (2)&nbsp;selective; (3) analytical; (4)&nbsp;classification; (5)&nbsp;system-forming; (6)&nbsp;evaluative; (7) generalizing and synthesizing. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The results of the research cover different approaches of researchers to CT and CI, the opinion of the authors of this article on the relevance&nbsp;/&nbsp;irrelevance of the performed investigations to communication issues, expediency&nbsp;/&nbsp;inexpediency of the research procedures, summarizes the results of analysis and provided evaluation, presents discussion provisions on misidentification by the individual scientists of communication and interaction, communication and intercourse.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> Carried out a systematic review and systematic analysis allowed: (a)&nbsp;critically, according to the objective scientific (qualitative) data to assess modern research on CT&nbsp;/&nbsp;CI as those that illegally and unreasonably interpret communication as interaction, without resorting to its inherent psycholinguistic features; (b)&nbsp;to present one’s own scientific understanding of CT&nbsp;/&nbsp;CI as psycholinguistic phenomena and to define the corresponding concepts. The identification of communication with iteration (a component of communication) causes non-terminological use of the terms “communicative tolerance&nbsp;/&nbsp;communicative intolerance”, terminological disorder, substitution of concepts, shift of emphasis in empirical investigations of communication towards another subject of the research. </em></p> Heorhii Kalmykov, Stefaniya Dobroskok, Diana Chyzhma, Irina Endeberia, Oksana Kyhtuik Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 06 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Lesya Ukrainka's Poetry in Chinese Translation: Psycholinguistic Aspect <p><strong><em>Aim of the study.</em></strong><em> On the basis of the theories of dynamic translation, determine the degree of correspondence between the psycho-cognitive reactions of Ukrainian and Chinese recipients to the original and translated texts of the poetry-cycle of Lesya Ukrainian </em><em>“</em><em>Tears-Pearls</em><em>”</em><em>. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Research methods.</em></strong><em> Psycholinguistic methods of empirical research are basic in this article: Osgood</em><em>’</em><em>s semantic differential method, content analysis and free associative experiment, other linguistic methods (cognitive and semantic analysis) and general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, description and classification of linguistic facts) are also used.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> On the basis of previous theoretical studies, the essential characteristics of translation as a psycho-cognitive process have been established. It is argued that the degree of equivalence of the translation of a literary text is determined not only by the work of the translator, but also by the emotional-evaluative reaction of the target recipients. An important thesis is that the perception of the text (original and translation) is influenced by the interhemispheric asymmetry of the mental activity of speakers of different languages (</em><em>Clark &amp; Paivio</em><em>, 1991; Fenollosa</em><em>, 1968;</em><em> Zasyekin</em><em>, 2010</em><em>). Empirical research has shown that the </em><em>“</em><em>right-brain</em><em>”</em><em> imaginative thinking of the Chinese partly determines the degree of equivalence of their perception of the translation of Lesya Ukrainka</em><em>’</em><em>s poetry. The semantic profiles showed a fairly neutral emotional and evaluative reaction of the Chinese to translation incentives, which, in our opinion, was conditioned by the ethnonational specifics of the original text and the difference in poetic traditions. Despite the preservation of the thematic categories of the original in translation, in the new (Chinese) semantic space, these categories partly acquired other sociocultural meanings, which significantly influenced the equivalence of the translation.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions.</em></strong><em> The degree of conformity of the psycho-cognitive reaction of target recipients to the original and the translation is determined not only by the type of mental activity of speakers of different languages, but also by a number of extralinguistic factors that determine the formation and state of activity of the verbal-associative network of representatives of different nations.</em></p> Natalia Isaeva, Alina Akimova, Anastasiya Akimova, Svitlana Chernyshova Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Sat, 06 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Post-Editing as the Means to Activate Students’ Thinking and Analytical Process: Psycholinguistic Aspects <p><em>The <strong>aim of the research </strong>is</em> <em>looking for the ways to intensify the future translators’ analytical and thinking activity during their independent work in online teaching. The author strives to achieve it through the combination of post-editing machine-translated texts and the Think</em><em>-</em><em>aloud</em> <em>protocol procedure. It is also</em> <em>assumed that this combination reduces the students’ dependence on the MT target text structure, as well as improves their competence in translating specialized texts.</em></p> <p><em>The <strong>methodology</strong> of research involved experimental post-editing-based online teaching (28 contact hours and 92 hours of independent work) of an elective university course ‘Specifics of translating English-language discourse in the domain of Psychology’ to the first-year MA students (majoring in English and Translation) whose command of English ranged from C1 to C2 levels in the CEFR classification. The parameters of analysis included the percentage of the students’ uploaded home tasks, the degree</em><em> of the subjects’ post-editing intensity in their weekly homework, the </em><em>students’</em><em> independence in the interim and final tests,</em><em> as well as the marks in the </em><em>Final test. </em></p> <p><em>The <strong>results</strong> of the analysis demonstrated a substantial difference between various groups of the subjects by all indicators. </em><em>The amount of home tasks uploaded by the subjects in groups A and B (with more intensive analytical and thinking activity) exceeds the similar parameter in groups C and D (with less intensive activity) more than twofold. There is a considerable advantage </em><em>of the groups A and B (and even C) subjects’ post-editing intensity in their weekly homework as compared to group D. The intensity</em><em> of the students’ analytical and thinking activity decreased from the highest (group A) to moderately high (group B) to average (group C) and to low (group D). The degree</em><em> of the </em><em>students’</em><em> independence in the interim and final tests </em><em>decreased from 85.0% (group A) to 35.0% in group D, with the remaining groups’ indicators in between – 59.0% (group B) and 46.0% (group C). These indicators clearly correlate with the average marks in the final test, which amounted to </em><em>93.80</em><em>,</em><em> 63 </em><em>and</em><em> 53</em><em> points (out of 100) in groups </em><em>А</em><em>,</em><em> В</em><em>,</em> <em>C</em> <em>and D respectively. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em>. Post-editing, in combination with the modified TAP procedure, contributes to the efficient development of the specialized texts translation competence due to the intensification of the students’ analytical and thinking activity, reduces their dependence on the MT target text structure and correlates with the improvement of the overall quality of their translation. </em></p> Leonid Chernovaty, Natalia Kovalchuk Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Sat, 06 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Graffiti Inside Jordanian Public Transport Vehicles <p><strong><em>Purpose.</em></strong><em> The study reported here aims to investigate the commonest communicative categories and subcategories of graffiti written inside Jordanian public transport vehicles. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Method.</em></strong><em> The researchers collected 1,410 tokens of graffiti from six Jordanian cities, viz., </em><em>Amman, Madaba, Irbid, Zarqa, Salt, and Jerash. The data which were </em><em>collected </em><em>from public transport vehicles included 1000 handwritten graffiti tokens and 410 custom-made stickers. Specifically, the data were collected from large and small buses as well as service and yellow taxis that lined up in main bus stations and bus stops available in front of hospitals, universities, malls</em><em> and close to traffic circles.</em><em> Then the categories and subcategories of graffiti were identified on the basis of their content.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results.</em></strong><em> The analysis reveals eight communicative categories, viz., personal, interpersonal, philosophical, religious, offensive, political, humorous, and sports. </em></p> <p><em>The analysis also reveals thirteen subcategories, viz., naming and self-identification, self-appraisal, love and familial relationships, philosophical perspectives, ethics of transport, decline of morals, expressions of Islamic faith, supplication, preaches, protection from the envious eye, territorial and tribal affiliation. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><em> The study concludes that a host of societal concerns and individuals’ feelings and thoughts are transmitted through the discourse of graffiti. The passengers and drivers have expressed their self-concentration, philosophical views, affiliation with territories and tribes, hostility and anger to individuals and groups, and allegiance to religion beliefs and traditions. The study also concludes that there </em><em>are socio-psychological motives that drive writing graffiti, viz., </em><em>identify oneself, release emotions, </em><em>criticize individuals and groups, reveal pride and admiration, </em><em>advertise goods and promote business</em><em>, search for contacts, </em><em>post messages for the public</em><em>, express attachment to educational institutions, document </em><em>the occurrence of a particular occasion</em><em>. The study recommends that </em><em>graffiti written inside public transport vehicles in other Arab countries be examined. Thus, one could examine to what extent the communicative categories and subcategories of graffiti along with its socio-psychological tend to show a pan-Arab base.</em></p> Ghada Al Karazoun, Jihad M. Hamdan Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Thu, 04 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Analysis of Posters for Informing the Population via Social Media during Covid-19: Ukrainian Network <p><strong><em>Objective. </em></strong><em>This study aims to determine the extent to which psycholinguistic variables are included in the analysis of the quality of directive posters on social media during Covid-19. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods. </em></strong><em>The methods used in the study include </em><em>analysis of the relevant scientific literature on the identification of psycholinguistic categories and variables relevant to the study; expert assessment of qualitative parameters of posters published on Facebook by official organizations; methods of descriptive statistics. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results. </em></strong><em>The analysis of 298 unique works conducted through Ukrainian network on Facebook revealed that the overall average quality of the publications is on the borderline between medium and high levels – 69.3% (by text parameters – 70.0%, graphic parameters – 68.6%).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions. </em></strong><em>The study revealed that </em><em>psycholinguistic variables such as readability, imageability, concreteness, conceptual familiarity, semantic size, name agreement, image agreement, visual complexity, typicality, image variability, authenticity of texts, processing fluency, etc. penetrate deeply related research on the creolized texts in various forms and interpretations. The quality of the posters on Facebook made by the official institutions operating in the field of health care is at the borderline between medium and high levels. These indicators are most in need of improvement on text parameters such as “Emphasis” and “Call to action”, as well as on graphical parameters such as “Presence of interactive graphic links” and “Understandability of illustration message without text”.</em></p> Daniil Shmatkov, María Luisa Zagalaz-Sánchez, Javier Cachón-Zagalaz Copyright (c) 2021 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300