PSYCHOLINGUISTICS https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal Psycholinguistics Journal publishes refereed articles dealing with psychological, anthropological, linguistic, social communication and psychodidactic aspects of psycholinguistics en-US psycholing.journal@gmail.com (Nataliia Kharchenko) mail@openscience.in.ua (Usenko Pavel) Tue, 12 Nov 2019 22:23:08 +0200 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Impact of the Internet Using Experience on the Peculiarities of the Internet Texts Understanding https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/705 <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>.</strong> The article presents the results of the empirical study of the impact of the Internet using experience on the process of the Internet texts understanding.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp;</strong> <strong>Methods. </strong>Different theoretical methods and techniques were used for this purpose: deductive and inductive methods, analysis and synthesis, generalization, systematization. Empirical methods were used for this purpose: experiment (semantic and receptive), method of semantic and pragmatic interpretations, content analysis, subjective scaling procedure. Mathematical methods were used: primary statistics, checks on the normal nature of the data distribution, statistical output, taking into account statistical indicators of fashion and the scope of variation. As well as some interpretive methods that are based on specific principles of systemic, activity, cognitive and organizational approaches.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>The author notes that Internet texts understanding is significantly different from the understanding of oral or written texts, since the Internet text is a pragmatically integral electronic document that constructing of conditionally completed text blocks in the form of «windows», that are opened in separate tabs of the browser, the order that depends on hyperlinks and user behavior. The peculiarities of the Internet texts include enhanced dialogue, divisibility, external informativity, reduced connectivity and comprehension, pragmatic and mostly formal integrity, conditional completeness, complicated structural, as well as hybrid and high degree of permeability, multimedia, presentation, inclination to speech game and collective authorship, saturation with neologisms, emoticons and abbreviations, fragmentation, non-compliance with linguistic norms, and the functioning of a special language etiquette.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>As a result of empirical research involving 716 respondents from different regions of Ukraine, it was determined that experience has the most significant effect on the understanding process at the reception stage, guiding users' activity and the accuracy of their expectations. Experience contributes to the accuracy of predicting the content of Internet texts by 15,0%. At the stage of interpretation, the adequacy and completeness of Internet texts interpretation with the accumulation of experience is improved by almost 10,0%. However, even experienced users were able to correctly interpret only a quarter of the dominant, while random – only a sixth part. Even less important is the experience and Internet activity at the stage of emotional identification, nor the assessment of comprehension, nor the coherence of emotional attitude is almost independent of the Internet using experience. With the accumulation of experience, users evaluate Internet texts more homogeneously, they are easier to realize their own attitude to the Internet texts, it becomes more consistent, however, they underestimate the complexity of Internet texts more than half of the cases, they are also inclined to share texts on the approval and critical like inexperienced readers.</p> Nataliia Akimova, Kateryna Oleksandrenko Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/705 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Verification of Psychodiagnostic Capabilities of Handwritten Texts https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/706 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The research paper contains a critical analysis of the graphological approach to the study of handwritten texts. The problem statement is justified by a special way of the formation of domestic psychology, which has been isolated for a long time from world tendencies. Although the study of manuscripts is not a widespread practice, graphological analysis is recognized at the highest academic level, including in the field of legal proceedings. The aim of the study is to test empirically the diagnostic potential of handwriting as a product of linguistic activity of an individual.</p> <p><strong>Research Procedure.</strong>The object of empirical testing is the left-hand slopе as a deviation from the usual way of writing. The data on variability of the variable in the sample of 119 students were collected; three study groups were selected on the basis of clusterization: with left-handed, direct-handed and right-handed writing.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The interpretations of the left-hand slope in graphology manuals are studied, and the lack of the evolution is shown. It was find out that the descriptions are philosophizing around previously published texts with the addition of details, author’s own associations; herewith the characteristics of the handwriting are anthropomorphized and directly transferred to the characteristics of personality. A questionnaire has been developed to verify the effect of personal validation. With regard to 40% of the statements of the questionnaire, all respondents expressed a positive opinion; these formulations do not differentiate the respondents and do not have any diagnostic value. None of the graphological interpretations of the left-hand slope was really more expressive in the left-handwriting group. According to the indicators of K.&nbsp;Riff’s Scale of Psychological Well-being, two cases of statistically significant difference between groups with different handwriting were found: the scales of “Environmental management” and “Balance of affect”. The obtained results lead to the idea that handwriting concentrates, to a certain extent, personal characteristics of the author and is an informative psychological feature – but this interpretation must be confirmed by the data of the psycholinguistic method. In general, the research paper demonstrates that handwriting can be the subject of scientific research, to which methodological procedures recognized in modern psychology are applied.</p> Vitalii Bochelyuk, Nikita Panov, Valentyna Zaytseva Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/706 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Psycholinguistic Aspects of Realisation of Acme Potential of Life Scripts of Ukrainian Writers-Emigrants https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/707 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>This article has been devoted to the research of the issue of realization of psycholinguistic resources of acme potential of the Ukrainian writers and scientists whose activities are connected with generation of texts, in another cultural environment. So as to study the peculiarities of this process, which is the aim of the article, the main focus has been put on the empirical research of the correlation between the socio-cultural adaptation of Ukrainian emigrants and the indicators of acmeological and psycholinguistic resources and on revealing differences in the indicators of resources and adaptation of Ukrainian emigrants who deal with writing and scientific activities in comparison with emigrants who do not.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods.</strong>The life sense orientation, psychological position, and the sociocultural adaptation have been identified as the main indicators of acme realization of emigrants. Accordingly, the diagnostic instruments of the study included the Life Sense Orientation Test by D.&nbsp;Leontev, which is an adapted version of Purpose-In-Life Test by J.&nbsp;Crumbaugh &amp; L.&nbsp;Maholick, the “Fullness of Life” methodology by J. Powell and the Questionnaire of a Personality Adaptation to New Socio-Cultural Environment by L.&nbsp;Yankovskiy.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> It has been confirmed that the desire to self-realization of the emigrants depends on interest and emotional fullness of life, self-imagination and acceptance of others. The statistically confirmed results of the research have confirmed the differences between the indicators of resources and adaptation of the Ukrainian emigrants conducting writing and scientific activities, compared to the emigrants not conducting such activities. It has been stressed out that the Ukrainian emigrants generating texts have more harmonious type of adaptation, and more often perceive the process of life as full of sense compared to those emigrants whose activities do not include narrativization. The received results testify the importance of development of acme technologies for the Ukrainian emigrants through a prism of psycholinguistics methodology.</p> Halyna Handzilevska , Uliana Nikitchuk, Eduard Balashov Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/707 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Metacognitive Strategies of Developing the Reading Competence of Students of Institutions of Higher Education https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/708 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The paper presents the peculiarities and advantages of using the metacognitive strategies to develop the reading competence in students of pedagogical universities in the process of educational-vocational training; the notion “strategies of reading” is clarified, the basic structural components are determined; the functions of the metacognitive strategies, their role when working with scientific texts are considered. The theoretical approaches to the metacognitive strategies are represented, their functions, their role in understanding scientific texts. The notions and meanings of the metacognitive skills and metacognitive strategies are revealed. The metacognitive skills can be considered as an integration of the ability to understand scientific texts and metalinguistic erudition, i.&nbsp;e. as a set of knowledge about the text and ability to work with the text. The paper presents the author’s programme of forming metalinguistic strategies when working with scientific texts.</p> <p><strong>Results &amp; Discussions.</strong> Erudition in the metastrategies is connected with the ability to understand complex verbal material of scientific character. The attention is paid to the fact that due to reflection the reader through speech experience penetrates into the essence of the text, reaches its comprehension. It is shown that metacognitive knowledge such as erudition in strategies and techniques of metacognition is connected with the ability to understand complex verbal material of scientific character. It is underlined that using actively the metacognitive strategies of management of one’s own cognitive activity, awareness of the process of implementing these strategies positively are connected with the ability to understand scientific texts and can be considered as a determinant of such an ability. It is noted that mastering the metacognitive strategies, their variability foresees knowledge and understanding of the structure of texts, their types, high ability to understand texts and variability of different metacognitive operations when working with the text material. Metalinguistic erudition, i.e. the set of knowledge of the text and the ability to work with it allows mastering different texts of vocational orientation quickly and effectively. Metalinguistic strategies as well the ability of the specialist to his/her own professional activities are positively connected with the ability to work effectively with the text material and the ability to process complex scientific texts.</p> Tamiliia Dotsevych Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/708 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Acculturating Stress, Language Anxiety and Procrastination of International Students in the Academic Settings https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/709 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>. The aim of the study is to examine the procrastination among international students in academic settings in Ukraine.</p> <p><strong>Materials </strong><strong>&amp;</strong><strong> Methods</strong>. The 41 participants were recruited from two national universities in Volyn oblast who came from African countries to obtain higher education in Ukraine. <em>Procrastination Scale</em><em>, </em>Acculturative Stress Scale, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale were applied in the research.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Evidence consistently suggests that there are no gender differences in procrastination, acculturating stress, and language anxiety. However, a weak negative correlation between procrastination and age of the participants was found (r=-0.26 p&lt;0.05). It is possible to hypothesise that academic procrastination is less likely to occur in mature age, being replaced by the procrastination in other life domains. The findings of multiple regression suggest that acculturative stress and language anxiety taken together predict procrastination of the international students (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.469, F (4, 37) = 2.741, p=0.015). However, amongst other predictors only fear of negative evaluation as a separate scale of language anxiety is an independent robust predictor of procrastination. One unanticipated finding was that&nbsp;accultuarion is not a significant moderator of the interaction between fear of negative evaluation and procrastination. Therefore, international students’ procrastination is predicted by rather social anxiety of being evaluated than cultural settings and language anxiety per se. This inference is in line with the evidence that test anxiety and communication apprehension are not independent significant predictors of procrastination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>. The current study showed that the main predictor of procrastination is linked to social anxiety which might be triggered by new cultural and academic settings and, therefore, transformed into procrastination. However, with a small sample size which represents only African students, caution must be applied, as the findings might not be extrapolated for the international students from other countries. Further studies, which take these limitations into account, will need to be undertaken.</p> Larysa Zasiekina, Olena Zhuravlova Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/709 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Overcoming Communicative Deadaptation of Speech Passive Children of Pre-School Age https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/710 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The article analyzes the child’s speech concerning the individual peculiarities. It is about the formation of the communicative competence of the child. It is revealed that this process involves aspects: the acquisition of skills in the system-language and directly in the communicative spheres.</p> <p><strong>Objectives – </strong>to structure theoretical developments of the problem under research, to emphasize their contribution into general approaches to speech activity of pre-school children, to single out groups of speech-passive children on the basis of communicative deadaptation.</p> <p><strong>Research methods and techniques. </strong>The typological groups of speech-passive children have been singled out: «operational-technical», «motivational», «partial» or «selective» speech passivity. The experimental research on the identification of speech-passive children has been planned and carried out. The Heidelberger Speech Development Test has been used to diagnose the speech abilities of children aged 3 to 9 and a questionnaire for assessing speech and cognitive development of the child.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussions. </strong>The child’s individual speech is understood as a socially and biologically conditioned system of sign psychic configurations, used by the individual both for thinking and for speech communication, which can be both active and passive. The possibilities of using the results of modern interdisciplinary researches to identify communicative maladaptation of senior pre-school children, who are speech-passive, have been revealed. The speech activity of children is defined as a stable personality property, which manifests itself in the ability to perceive and understand the speech of others. The speech passivity of the child is understood as a lower level of speech activity, due to the peculiarities of speech development in ontogenesis. Active and inert types of speech have been characterized. It is concluded that the age of five years has a special significance for onto-psycholinguistic researches. This age is characterized by the crisis of egocentric speech, culminating in its internalization, accompanied by the general communicative maladaptation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> It is proved that the violation of the process of communication of speech-passive pre-schoolers is manifested mainly in two varieties, as communicative deficit or communicative exaltation.</p> Larysa Zdanevych, Kateryna Kruty Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/710 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Problems of Modeling the Processes of Audition in the World Psycholinguistics https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/711 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The problem of listening comprehension modeling is one of the most debatable in psycholinguistics: so far, in both Western European and American and Eastern European psycholinguistic sciences, the search for the possibility of developing a model of listening as a coherent speech is not stopped. At the same time, various scientific ideas about models and the actual process of modeling are fixed.</p> <p><strong>The aim of the study.</strong> To analyze the most common models of speech perception and speech comprehension in psycholinguistics and present the created model of listening, which reproduces the unity of the processes of verbal perception and understanding of speech, which has been called “from motive to motive”.</p> <p><strong>Research methods. </strong>Meta analysis of psycholinguistic sources; systematization of theoretical analysis data; generalization of scientific theses; comparison; modeling.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Taking into account the basic tenets of the Eastern European psycholinguistics, listening is considered in the paradigm of the “activity frame” (Leontyev, 2003) as speech-thinking activity, which components are motive, purpose, actions, operations (as the ways of performing actions), attitudes and results (products of audio), and a refined model of expression generation (Akhutina, 2002). In this context, a theoretical integrative model of listening in the unity of verbal perception and comprehension of speech has been developed taking into account the motivational processes of speech communication. The integrative listening model differs from the other in the following ways: a) the presence of the subject’s own motivation for establishing the motive of the author’s speech (text) - from the communicator’s motive to that of the communicator; b) its semantic and value orientation, which reflects the deep inter-speech stages of the course of listening; c) the presence of purpose formation as a prerequisite for the formation of meaning; d) prediction in the structure of the model of internalization and exteriorization as the driving factors in the transformation processes from external (verbal perception) to internal semantic-semantic (processing) and external sounding (reproduction of clear); e) introducing into the phases of the auditory process a stage that involves the moment when the subject of the audition (meaningful perception and comprehension of speech) plays the image of the situation of the subject of speaking (letter).</p> Larysa Kalmykova, Nataliia Kharchenko, Іnna Мysаn Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/711 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Psycholinguistic Aspects of Humanitarian Component of Cybersecurity https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/712 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The paper focuses on language means exploited by social engineers in their activities in terms of humanitarian aspects of cybersecurity. The <em><strong>goal</strong></em><em> of this </em><em>research</em><em> is</em> to analyze the methods and techniques employed by social engineers in their malicious activity and its features from a psycholinguistic point of view for further development of counteraction mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> To obtain results we used the following methods: primary source analysis, analysis of spoken and written speech and speech products, and intent analysis.</p> <p><em><strong>Results.</strong></em><em> The activity theory</em> has been successfully applied to consider the key features of social engineers’ work. On the base of AT we presented a three-component model which we may consider only in the case of a social engineer’s successful attack (action).</p> <p>Based on the analysis of the sources, we distinguished the types of spoken and written communication actions (these types correspond to direct and indirect actions), used by social engineers to affect the cognitive processes for retrieving “sensitive data” and confidential information. Besides, we also categorized psychological and language means, which social engineers evidently apply in their activities. We stress that in most cases social engineers’ activities are aimed at a)&nbsp;affecting the person’s emotions and feelings; b)&nbsp;blocking rational and critical thinking; c)&nbsp;manipulating moral and ethic values, and d) using positive incentives that have an interest to a user. Taking into account the abovementioned types of communication, psychological and language means, we systematized and described the general techniques of using oral and written forms of language and technologies: 1)&nbsp;techniques related to the use of spoken speech; 2)&nbsp;techniques related to the use of written speech; 3)&nbsp;techniques related to the use of USB flash drives, applications, and program software.</p> <p>The findings are applicable for developing a mechanism to counter social engineers’ attacks and contribute to improving the level of cyber literacy.</p> Yuliya Krylova-Grek Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/712 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Acquisition of Case System in Romani Language https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/713 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The paper presents observations of the author on acquisition of case markers in the Romani language of two Roma children from Bulgaria. This is the first study ever done on acquisition of case system of Romani by children in their natural environment. The study is done in one of the biggest Roma settlement of Bulgaria in the city of Sofia. Romani being a new-Indian language has some features from the Indian languages but also adapted some features from some European languages. It has the ability to express one and the same idea either with a preposition or with a case marker.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The author uses the longitudinal observation of the children in their natural environment, where a woman – representative of the community, was trained to audio record the interviews between parents, family members, community members and the children. This method is known from other studies in field of sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics (Labov, 1973)</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The study is investigating what is used more frequently by the children - prepositions or case markers. For this purpose, the utterances of the parents and the children with case markers and with the prepositions have been analyzed. It was found that in the age between 1 to 2&nbsp;&nbsp; parents and respectively their children use more case markers. In the age from 2 to 3 children use more prepositions. It seems that Roma children need more experience with the language in order to connect the case marker with the function of the preposition in the Romani language.</p> Hristo Kyuchukov Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/713 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Narrative Indicators of Adolescents’ Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/714 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The article presents the results of a study of adolescents` personal narratives. The general aim of the study was to identify narrative indicators of adolescents’ maladaptive cognitive schemas. This <strong>aim</strong> was achieved by virtue of realization of such tasks as: to identify the specific text categories (indicators) that indicate the maladaptive schemas and to determine the predictive power of each category (indicator). In the course of theoretical analysis, there were systematized the approaches to the understanding of personal narratives and “self-texts”. There also was generalized the concept of maladaptive cognitive schemas, and were defined textual categories which can be reflected in the narratives of people who have certain maladaptive schemas.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The methods of the empirical study were Dusseldorf Illustrated Schema Questionnaire for Children and the content-analysis of personal narratives. Statistical processing of the obtained data and determination of the predictive power of each narrative category were performed with the help of the method of recursive division trees.</p> <p><strong>R</strong><strong>esult</strong><strong>s. </strong>As a result of the empirical study was it was found that certain categories in the personal narratives of adolescents allow us to predict the manifestation of individual maladaptive schemas. There were identified narrative indicators, able to predict fourteen of the eighteen schemas. It was determined that the knowledge of narrative indicators of maladaptive cognitive schemas can be used within the psychological counseling and therapy at the stage of gathering primary information, as well as in the context of purposeful psychological impact.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> There were described the topical prospects for further scientific development of the problem, which were to expand the categorical structure of content analysis, which would allow to find indicators of four schemas that remain unclear, as well as to widen the age range of respondents and to test the hypothesis about the existence of a link between the personal narratives of adults and their maladaptive schemas. There was made an assumption that modification of a personal narrative can accelerate therapeutic work aimed at eliminating the negative impact of maladaptive schemas on a person's life.</p> Olga Lozova, Olena Lytvynenko Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/714 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Neuro-Psycholinguistic Study of Political Slogans in Outdoor Advertising https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/715 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The article presents the results of a neuropsychological study in outdoor advertising. Diagnostic capabilities of the neurointerface to evaluate the efficiency of passwords are considered. The leasing process and existing methods of performance evaluation are highlighted. The specificity of neuropsycholinguistics in the approach to the analysis of the mental activity of the individual in the acquisition and use of language is shown. The ultimate goal of this neuropsycholinguistic study is to find out what exactly pleases the voter and what prompts the candidate to support the electorate of a particular region, which in turn will allow him to adjust the content of political advertising by making it highly effective.</p> <p><strong>Methods and </strong><strong>T</strong><strong>echniques of the </strong><strong>R</strong><strong>esearch</strong><strong>.</strong> The EMOTIV Epoc + mobile 14 channel neurointerface was used to study the neuropsychological study of political slogans from outdoor advertising. In addition, we have used professional EEG monitoring software to visualize brain electrical activity and to transform transformed EEG indicators in the form of basic cognitive-emotional indicators: EmotivPRO and EMOTIV Brain Activity Map. Ranking of slogans on the effectiveness of influence on the electorate was carried out on the basic raw EEG data and their transformation into cognitive-emotional indicators: stress, interaction, interest, excitement, concentration, relaxation. This set of neuropsychological techniques is a relevant highlight. The poll was attended by potential voters in the 2019 presidential election. The sample size is 30 men and 30 women.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> As a result of a neuropsychological study of political slogans on outdoor advertising, it was found out which slogans are the best, good, mediocre, ambiguous, ineffective, ineffective and negative for voters. The results of the study were published on November 16, 18 on the social network “Feusbuk” and November 20, 18 on the TV channel “True here” in the broadcast “In the field of excitement” issue No 24.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Summarizing the findings and interpreting the cognitive-emotional indicators, it was concluded that in order to create an effective psychological impact on the voter’s behavior, it is recommended to have the word “Ukraine” in the slogan, to avoid the motivating words (for women, it is the army and everything related to violence and death, and for men everything related to the provision of material goods), the use of religious sentimentality in women, and gender mainstreaming when targeting slogans.</p> Serhii Maksymenko, Bohdan Tkach , Lesia Lytvynchuk, Liana Onufriieva Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/715 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 The Peculiarities of the Perception and Understanding of Sonnets Written by W. Shakespeare by the Students of the Faculty of Foreign Languages https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/716 <p><strong>The purpose </strong>of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of the perception and understanding of Sonnets written by W. Shakespeare by the students of the Faculty of Foreign Languages.</p> <p><strong>The methods of the research </strong>are: in order to study the features of perception and understanding of the absurd in the sonnets of W.&nbsp;Shakespeare we used the method of associative experiment. In our research we examined the dependence of the latent period of awareness of the absurd meaning of speech acts, depending on the nature of stimulation. For comparing we proposed to students high-frequency phrases, emotionally colored ones (chosen from the sonnets of W. Shakespeare), low-frequency statements, stylistically colored phrases, statements which include slang.</p> <p><strong>The results of the research. </strong>At the end of the procedure of the experiment, a total of 1958 verbal responses of the students were received. From them, 897 reactions are for high frequency phrases; 458 – for emotionally colored ones; 293 are for low frequency phrases; 256 – for stylistically colored ones and only 54 reactions are for slang. At the stage of the analysis of the results we arranged the groups of words depending on statistical differences in the average time of the associative reaction for each group in order from the smallest one to the largest group: 1)&nbsp;high-frequency and emotionally colored; 2)&nbsp;stylistically colored: 3)&nbsp;low-frequency; 4)&nbsp;phrases with slang.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> It was proved that students adequately perceived and understood the emotionally colored phrases that were selected by us from W.&nbsp;Shakespeare’s sonnets and contained explicit and implicit absurd meaning. This gives us reason to argue that these statements, with their expressive context and absurd content, in a great degree attracted students that they perceived these phrases as personally significant, experienced them in such a way that they already entered their sphere of personally significant experience.</p> Nataliya Mykhalchuk, Olga Kryshevych Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/716 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Psycholinguistic Peculiarities of Non-Canonical (Personal) Religious Discourse https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/717 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>The article reveals universal and specific features of non-canonical religious discourse. Religious discourse is generally defined as the process of cognitive-speech activity in a religiously relevant social and communicative situation, which involves the reception, transmission and/or creation (compilation) of certain religious texts in a certain context; and as the current result of this activity, which creates the corresponding discursive picture (model) of the world. The main genre of religious discourse is prayer – canonical (institutionalized) and non-canonical (non-institutionalized, personal). Non-canonical prayer is defined as an appeal to God, the text of which may contain both canonical fragments and individual verbal formulations of the subject.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Techniques of the Research</strong>. The sample of empirical research is 543 persons of different age, social status, from different regions of Western Ukraine. Due to the use in the first stage of «Methods for the Study of Religious Activity» (D.&nbsp;Smirnov) and subtraction of quartiles, the whole initial sample is divided into four sub-samples of persons with different levels of religious activity. In the second stage, the verbalization of non-canonical religious discourses was recorded. The thus obtained 543 texts were subjected to content-analytic procedures using the «Textanz» computer program. The methods of psychosemantic and psycholinguistic textual analysis are used as the basis for the mentioned processing and interpretation of results.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. According to the results of the study, universal patterns of psycholinguistic structure of non-canonical religious discourse were identified, connected with the activation of the «I–You» system and the verbal explication of a certain personal request and gratitude. Some specific semantic variations of the corresponding discourse, due to the level of religious activity of the subject, are also revealed. It is stated, in particular, that at its higher levels, the number and, consequently, the importance of the tokens of the noun category «Spiritual, psychic life» («love», «heart», etc.) are increasing. This demonstrates the importance of prayer for high-religious individuals, not only as an external means of support, but as an effective psychological resource for self-control.</p> Nataliya Savelyuk, Tamara Tkach Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/717 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Contextual Inferencing Strategies and Changes in Reading Attitudes: the Case of Iranian EFL Undergraduates https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/718 <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The present study examined the impact of contextual inferencing on Iranian EFL learners’ attitudes towards reading in English.</p> <p><strong>Methods and techniques of the research</strong>. To achieve such goals, 60 BA undergraduate students at Islamic Azad University of Shiraz, majoring in English teaching and English translation studies within the age range of 19-23 participated in the study. They were divided into two groups of control and experimental randomly. The data were collected through an ‘Attitude towards Reading’ questionnaire and a revised version of Demet Kulac’s (2011) interview in two phases before and after the instruction.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The comparison of pre- and post-questionnaires showed that contextual inferencing strategies had a positive effect on learners’ attitudes towards reading, and there was a negative relationship between unknown vocabulary encounters and learners’ attitudes towards reading English texts. Finally, the analysis of the interview confirmed the effectiveness of strategy training in reading attitudes and showed some other factors which were enhanced by using contextual inferencing strategies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The findings contribute to syllabus designers and teachers in reading comprehension and international tests preparation courses.</p> Tannaz Sadeghi, Amin Marzban Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/718 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Modelling Associative-Semantic Content as Regards the Logic-of-Semantics Dimension of the Adolescents’ Speech https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/719 <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>. </strong>The article deals with the analysis of the trends in the logic of the semantic organization of the speech and mental activity of adolescents as regards the dimension of the available semantic environment and that of the speech competences of an individual. It is stated that information about the world is systematized by human consciousness in the form of an associative-verbal field, whose producing and modelling is one of the ways of representing the speech competence of an individual shaping his/her destiny.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp;</strong> <strong>Methods. </strong>In view of the above, an empirical research of the distinctive features of expanding semantic content of the adolescents' speech consciousness as regards the dimension of the logic-of-semantics organization of the mental and speech activity was performed using the diagnostic potential of a free associative experiment. A system of relevant ways of construction and associative expansion of meanings in the semantic field of the speech consciousness of adolescents was chosen as the subject of the research.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>Drawing on the results of the frequency analysis of the use of typical associative patterns for organizing the semantic field of speech, it was stated that the most represented among adolescents is a semantic way of reasoning based on the identification signs of the general contour of the trigger word at the level of its meaning. It was proved that the greatest changes in the logic of expanding associative semantic content are observed among older adolescents, which is interpreted as the result of fundamental changes in the strategies for cognitive processing of information flows.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>A conclusion was drawn about the stable tendency towards the standardization and unification of speech in adolescents during their transition to adulthood, and the reduction in the heuristic resource of the intellectual activity of older adolescent pupils was noted. In this context, the purposeful formation of speech and mental competences of an individual, the acquisition by adolescents of efficient methods of the logic-of-semantics organization of the associative semantic content of speech is defined as a necessary prerequisite for the personality development, as well as that for the speech and mental development of an individual.</p> Natalya Tokareva Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/719 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Reflection in Speech of the Individual-Typological Features of Language Personality https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/720 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The article is devoted to the actual psycholinguistic problem of reflecting in the various parameters of speech the features of a linguistic personality. Since speech is a unity of social, i.e. language as a sign system, and a unique individual – a subjective form of reflection of the objective reality and the way of formation and formulation of thought (Winter), which is determined by the motivational, dynamic, emotional, regulatory, cognitive characteristics of a linguistic personality, according to the author, a holistic study of all its stable communicative-speech and psychological properties, include their individual typological manifestations. The article presents the results of empirical studies of manifestations in speech of the individual typological features of various aspects of a linguistic personality, performed by N.A.&nbsp;Fomina and under her leadership, which allows to give a full and deep description of the personality.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Techniques.</strong> The author’s method of multilevel, multicomponent analysis of the utterance as a product of individual speech activity involves considering not only the linguistic, speech, content-semantic characteristics of the text, but also the representation of the most important psychological (motivational-targeted, emotional, regulatory-volitional, cognitive, dynamic) characteristics of the subjects of speaking.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> This article reveals the features of the reflection in speech of typological manifestations of the activity, interhemispheric asymmetry, the originality of intelligence, semantic sphere, value orientations, various types of self-regulation, the organization of initiative, sociability and perseverance, expressing the integral essence of the personality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The specific manifestations of the individual typological features of&nbsp; linguistic personality described in the article, primarily due to the specifics of the activity, orientation and self-regulation, open up great opportunities for speech diagnosis.</p> Natalia Fomina Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/720 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Analysis of Problem of Perceiving and Understanding Literary Texts by Philology Students https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/721 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. The article discloses the importance of conducting psycholinguistic analysis of perceiving and understanding voluminous literary texts by philology students; the issue is relevant as there is a lack of research that concerns revealing the essential aspects of these processes, as well as the influence of conducting psycholinguistic analysis on effective performance in philology students’ professional activities is highlighted. The <strong>goal</strong> of the article is to conduct a theoretical analysis of the problem of perceiving and understanding literary texts by philology students and identify the level of development of future teachers of language and literature individual practical skills on decoding the content of a large prose fictional text.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. To achieve the goal, the authors used theoretical and empirical research methods. Empirical methods included methodology for determining semantic kernels of a text and its probabilistic connection, and methodology for determining the subtext, motives of the author and characters.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Theoretical analysis of the problem led the authors to conclusion that the processes of perceiving and understanding large literary text by philology students are based on two main components: cognitive skills and personal emotional feelings. The process of a literary text perceiving includes such structural elements as the reader’s orientation and the type of student’s work with a literary text, depends on students’ personal professional neoformations (reading competence, speech-cognitive competence), and is also influenced with philology student’s psychological type. The results of empirical study conducted by the authors indicate that future teachers of language have following developed reproductive skills with voluminous literary texts: they at a high level reproduce factual information of a text, can accurately convey an emotional load of a literary work, determine its theme, main idea, etc.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The productive types of voluminous literary texts understanding associated with the definition of subtext, motives of the author and characters are mastered by philological students in a rather limited degree and this fact necessitates following studying underlying mechanisms of these processes functioning and developing tools for its targeted progress.</p> Inna Khyzhniak, Nazar Liashov Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/721 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 On the Question of the Place and Role of Language in the Process of Personality Socialization: Structural-Ontological Sketch https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/722 <p><strong>Objective</strong> – is to formulate a methodological discourse regarding the place and role of the language interconnected with the process of socialization of a person and develop a systemic idea of the corresponding functional features.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong> – this discourse is formulated on the basis of a systemic idea of the personality socialization, which, in turn, is realized using the structural-ontological method of studying the subject matter field in interdisciplinary researches. This method involves the construction of special visual-graphic matrices that reflect the interaction of the primary process and the material of the studied system.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The work with the structural-ontological matrix made it possible to analyze the functions of the language in the context of such significant factors of socialization as complex psychodynamics, civilization space and the function of reflection. At the same time, reflection is considered at the level of two plans – primary (reflection-bond) and secondary (reflection-splitting). This made it possible to deduce the idea of the role of language beyond the traditional framework of working with text and analyze the place of the language in the context of activities to establish a connection between individuals, which is realized in a specific cooperative situation (Shchedrovitsky). In particular, the look at language as a specific tool of civilizational rationing, the mechanism of which is provided through reflection-communication. Thus, the language is examined through the prism of its systemic influence on the morphology of the psyche.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> – a structural-ontological analysis of the place and role of language in the process of personality socialization has led us to construction of a hypothesis about the phenomenon of language discontentment, as a tendency to distance away ego-consciousness in the process of individuation from linguistic ontology. The arguments were also advanced in favor of the assumption regarding the peculiarities of the influence of language discontentment on cultural activities and the psychodynamic contribution of this phenomenon in the midlife crisis (Jung).</p> Vitalii Shymko Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/722 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Psychosemantic Analysis of Psychologists’ Representations About the Place of Psychological Counseling https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/725 <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Psycholinguistic studies of a man as a linguistic personality open up new opportunities for scientists to develop technologies aimed to explore the role of counseling psychology in the system of psychological assistance in the representations of psychologists. The use of psycholinguistic research methods, in particular, psychosemantics helps to study the origin, structure and functions of the personal system of knowledge and definitions.</p> <p><strong>Aim.</strong> The aim of the article is to highlight the research results of word associations of psychologists regarding the role of counseling psychology in the system of psychology practice.</p> <p><strong>Research procedure</strong>: the study was conducted using the semantic differential scaling and the method of pairwise comparisons. Representatives of different branches of psychology who work in Ukraine took part in it.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> It was determined that counseling psychology is a totally independent branch of assistance in the representations of the research subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> the psycho-semantic research of psychologists’ word associations applyong the semantic&nbsp;differential scaling and the method of pairwise comparisons of all types of psychological therapy according to the criterion of similarity-difference has determined the role of counseling psychology in psychosemantic space. The more the phenomena, stimuli, objects studied are subjectively similar in the generalized psychosemantic space, the closer the indicators of these stimuli are located in the space of signs. Based on such a remote model, subjective data according to the differences of one stimulus from another their mutual arrangement are reconstructed in the space of several signs. The distance between these objects is an indicator of the differences. The research proves that psychological counseling is a totally independent branch of assistance in the representations of the psychologists.</p> Natalia Afanasieva, Nataliia Svitlychna, Oleksandr Shayda Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/725 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Psycholinguistic Aspects of Formation of Culture of Dialogical Communication https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/687 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>.</strong> The article presents the results of researching the samples of English-speaking literary heritage, which reveals psycholinguistic features of dialogical communication and peculiarities of communicants' perception of interactions meanings in dialogic speech. The technique of detecting the frequency of using different dialogues that differ in number of replicas is described.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>.</strong> The purpose of the article is to characterize the psycholinguistic features of dialogical communication, to study units of the dialogue as means of forming a culture of communication of those who get aeducation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>.</strong> The methods of analysis of domestic and foreign works of art, analysis of dictionary definitions, methods of contextual and logical-semantic analyzes, elements of statistical analysis are used in the article.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>. </strong>It is substantiated that dialogue as a form of a communicative act is the most used form of verbal activity in which the text categories of communicants are implemented, their interpersonal relations are displayed, speech communication strategies appear, etc. Dialogue speech is characterized as a situational and thematic community of communicative motives in verbal statements consistently generated by two or more interlocutors in the direct act of communication. The frequency of the use of dialogues consisting of different amounts of dialogical unities is revealed. It is defined average number of dialogues consisting of dialogical unities; the frequency of dialogue with a different number of dialogical unities. It is considered the definitions of dialogue, dialogism, dialogical learning, dialogical speech, dialogical communication; it is characterized of the developed system of exercises and tasks for forming a culture of dialogical communication.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> It is concluded that for the formation of a culture of dialogical communication of the educational recipients, it is of great importance to turn to highly artistic samples of literature for the purpose of emotional perception of them; creating situations of empathy with the characters of the work by «impersonation» in these images; work on dialogical situations; the use of dialogues as a means of socialization.</p> Halyna Vaskivska, Svitlana Palamar, Lesia Poriadchenko Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/687 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Education 2.0: Psycholinguistic Analysis https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/688 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>.</strong> The article presents the results of the investigation of the impact of new information and communication technologies, namely Internet technologies of the social web, on the linguistic consciousness in the learning environment. The term covers a certain concept of the Global Web development, when the main functional task of a web service is aimed at maintaining interaction between network users.</p> <p><strong>The method</strong> of a free and directional associative experiment was chosen as main research technique. It allows most accurately identifying the meaning of the word, seeing what is behind this word in the linguistic consciousness of a person. Associative series were identified for a number of concepts&nbsp;– the most popular social web services and Internet technologies (Internet, Instagram, social media, communication, Twitter, Telegram, WhatsApp, Youtube, Pinterest, Google, selfie).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>.</strong> The associative experiment showed that information, communicative and functional components of the Global net are actualized in the linguistic consciousness of the participants of the educational process most of all. Almost all social media services have both positive and negative connotations. The educational component of social media has been marked little, if at all, in the linguistic consciousness of the recipients which indirectly indicates that their use in the educational process has not become an institutional practice yet.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> The results of the research will contribute to the development of a new direction in modern linguistics – psycholinguistics 2.0 which studies psychological and linguistic aspects of human speech in social media, social and psychological aspects of using language in speech communication using web 2.0 platforms and services, and in individual verbal and thinking activity. The study is characterized by an interdisciplinary nature, being at the interface of psycholinguistics 2.0 and education 2.0, which contributes to a better understanding of the polyparadigmatic way of the development of humanitarian knowledge under the influence of technologies in general.</p> Olena Goroshko, Tetiana Poliakova Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/688 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Stimulus «Ukraine» and Associative-Semantic Field of Students’ Mental Lexicons https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/689 <p><strong>The purpose of the article</strong> is to make an aspectological review of the scientific literature with a regard to the level of study the concept “Ukraine”, as well as to describe the data obtained as a result of a free associative experiment directed on studying of the individual models of students’ mental lexicon, paying attention to its structural features of expression and varieties of semantic-meaning zones, on the basis of which to make suggestions on the importance of the development of future specialists’ reflective associative thinking in the social and communicative sphere of the system “man-man.”</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> There were used such general scientific methods such as: a)&nbsp;the analysis of the domestic and foreign psycholinguistic sources and motivation of theoretical approaches; b)&nbsp;systematization of the data of theoretical analysis on the level of problem elaboration that has been declared and specification of the basic approaches and principles; c)&nbsp;generalization of the results of theoretical analysis in relation to scientific approaches; d)&nbsp;the analysis of the experimental data, its systematization and description; e)&nbsp;modeling of the factual material, which evidences the base of the conclusions. Among the partial methods it was used the widely applied method of free associative experiment, its chain variant, on the basis of which were determined the individual mental models, its varieties and semantic-semantic zones.</p> <p><strong>The results</strong> of the study testify to the unique specificity of the individual mental spheres and reactions of the recipients. Experimental material confirms that individual speech, on the basis of which the mental lexicon of the individual is formed and developed, is not just a system of formal signs for interaction and communication: it simultaneously represents the verbal intellect of the native speaker, his system of ideological values, emotional and evaluative palette of reaction; it is the representative of his psyche, experience, erudition, verbal memory and the quality of its reproduction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Indirectly through the different VMs and associative ranks, we make a generalization that the verbal-associative memory field in recipients is formed and actualized to a different extent, as well as the higher mental functions, which confirms the relevance of the study of verbal consciousness of the personality of future specialist in the process of professional development.</p> Viktoria Hrukach, Olesia Tkachenko, Tatiana Solovyova Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/689 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Adaptive Model in Translation: Psycholinguistic Dimension https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/690 <p>The <strong>aim</strong> of the article is to offer a theoretical overview of the relevance of the adaptive model in translation from psycholinguistic perspective. Based on psycholinguistic approach to defining the notions of adequacy/equivalency in translation the research suggests theoretically and methodologically justified reasons for applying the translational adaptation to culture-bound texts.</p> <p>The comprehensive analysis of the “adaptation” as a notion presupposes the implementation of the hierarchy of the scientific <strong>methods</strong> of analysis among which the most relevant are: general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis of theoretical discussions on adaptation, text-typological structural/functional, psycholinguistic and translational methods of text analysis. An adaptive potential of a text is defined within the framework of intralinguistic and interlinguistic comparison of pragmatic texts, which grounds the adaptive translational models of pragmatic texts under analysis.</p> <p>The <strong>results</strong> of the research speak to the fact that from the psycholinguistic perspective the notion of an equivalent translation presupposes the transcoding of the content of a source text with its semantic, stylistic and functionally communicative information. On the other hand, the notion of an adequate translation is understood as the translational reproduction of the reaction which is caused by the source text on the audience taking into account text-typological, cultural, psychological stereotypes of the target audience.</p> <p>In <strong>conclusion</strong> one can state that the adequate variant of translation of pragmatic culture-bound text is possible under the conditions of its adaptation to the linguocultural stereotypes of the target audience. In other words, the common beam of the adequacy in translation is the target audience’s comprehension.</p> Vladyslava Demetska Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/690 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Information Entropy in Translation: Psycholinguistic Aspects https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/691 <p>The article deals with the category of informational entropy in the source text as a matter of translation psycholinguistics. The informational entropy of the lexical units on different levels in the source text refers to subjective factors that reduce the translation quality. Lexical units-carriers of the source text’s informational entropy cause informational deficits in the translator’s consciousness.</p> <p><strong>The aim</strong> of the search is to consider the category of informational entropy from the standpoint of psycholinguistics and cognitive translation theory, identify the causes of informational entropy, establish linguistic and genre-stylistic markers of the lexical entropy units in the source text, identify ways to minimize entropy in the specialized translation.</p> <p><strong>The research procedure</strong> involves a psycholinguistic experiment with the participation of 85 informants with semi-professional translation status. The participants produced a German-Ukrainian translation of a specialized text, in which the number of lexical units contained informational entropy as a percentage of the total words’ number was 17.9%.</p> <p><strong>The results</strong> of the translation’s comparative analysis indicate similar psycholinguistic mechanisms for understanding lexical units with informational entropy, leading to false translation solutions in the target texts. Such mechanisms include an incorrect choice of the translation method and a lack of attention to the extralinguistic information in the source text.</p> <p><strong>The conclusions</strong> of the psycholinguistic experiment confirm the universal nature of the informational entropy, resulting in translation quality degradation. The psycholinguistic factor for the false translation solutions is an automatic suppression the contextual meaning of the source text’s lexical item by its subject-logical meaning in the translator’s mind, realized in the incorrect choice of the translation method.</p> Marharyta Dorofeieva, Tatiana Andrushchenko Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/691 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Investigating Cognitive and Psycholinguistic Features of Translation Universals https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/692 <p>Traditionally, translation is viewed as a reliable shield over linguistic diversity, one of the ways to ensure a target language survival. However, translation is also reported to distort a translated language due to introducing ‘the third code’ (Frawley, 1984) features. These “deforming tendencies” (Berman, 1985) destroy the translated language by erasing its natural pattern and by adding there a bundle of alien features that cause its lexical, syntactical, and stylistic deficiencies. The current study is <strong>aimed</strong> at detecting those destructive features treated in translation studies as “translation universals” (Chesterman, 2004). To this end, a psycholinguistic analysis was held to establish the use of language which is not the result of intentional, controlled processes and of which translators may not be aware. These subliminal translation-inherent processes can be traced in the use of function words that encode procedural meaning. Relevance Theory (Wilson &amp; Sperber, 1993) explains a conceptual-procedural distinction as a major distinction made between two types of linguistically encoded information. Conceptual information expressed by content words is viewed as encoding concepts whereas words with procedural meaning contribute to the derivation of implicatures, certain ways of processing propositions. Discourse connectives, conjunctions, prepositions, particles, pronouns, modal words constitute that group of function words with procedural meaning. To uncover certain variations in the use of these linguistic units, a parallel English-Ukrainian corpus made up of an 8,000-character excerpt from Franny by J.D. Salinger, its professional translation, and forty novice translators’ target versions, was compiled.</p> <p>The corpus data were <strong>processed</strong> by Textanz and SPSS computerized tools.</p> <p>The <strong>results</strong> of the psycholinguistic analysis proved that the Ukrainian versions as contrasted to the original text contained the following S-universals: implicitation expressed through the shortage of discourse markers of global coherence, simplification due to the lack of personal pronouns, decreased mean number of words per sentence, and greater number of sentences; normalization embodied in vernacular network impoverishment due to the decreased amount of pragmatic markers and fillers, explicitation due to higher lexical variety and density rates, and rationalization as a result of abundant marking of discourse relations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> Taken together, these findings have significant implications for the understanding of how procedural information processing by novice translators is manifested in translation.</p> Serhii Zasiekin Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://psycholing-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/692 Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0200